Wisdom and Judgment: Essential Characteristics for Effective Leadership by Dr. C. J. Kowalski & Dr. J. P. Cangemi

There is no more important subject today than leadership. Nations rest or fall on the basis of leadership; so do educational institutions, companies and families. The essence of leadership is wisdom & judgment: seemingly in short supply in our culture today. The purpose of this article is to present a “broad assessment,” and authors’ perspective, on the subject of leadership. The article is based on the results of reviewing over 150 periodicals and books about leadership.


Relationship-Oriented Leadership Behavior and Its Impact on Participative Decision-Making by Dr. Meznah Saad Alazmi

This study investigates three main aspects of relationship-oriented leadership: (1) adoption of relationship-oriented leadership behavior by department heads at Kuwait University:(2) effectiveness of communication: and (3) level of participation in the decision-making process by the teaching staff. This study examines the direct and indirect relationships between participative decision-making and communication effectiveness. To these ends, a survey instrument was developed and randomly distributed among the teaching staff of Kuwait University; and a total of 210 teachers participated. The findings revealed the following:(1) the level of adoption of relationship-oriented leadership behavior by department heads at Kuwait University was not high; (2)communication at Kuwait University between department heads and subordinates was also not high;(3) participation in the decision-making process was high;(4) statistical significance was found for females at p< 0.05;and (5) the highest level of relationship-oriented leadership behavior- was found in the Scientific and Professional Faculties, while participation in the decision-making process was highest in the Faculties of the Arts. Finally, relationship-oriented leadership behavior had a significant influence on the level of the participation in the decision-making process between faculty members and department heads. Furthermore, the mediation effect of communication effectiveness between participation in the decision-making process and relationship-oriented leadership behavior was found to be positive.


Integrating Leadership Training and Ethical Principles: A Rotary Leadership Program for High School Juniors by Michael L. Raulin & Barbara Loudon

This paper describes a weekend leadership program that emphasizes different styles of leadership, the importance of character in leaders, and the power of experiential learning. Students learn about leadership primarily by working together in teams, building communication skills, learning to cooperate with others, and do it while having a good time as they learn. The goal is to take high school juniors, many of whom do not see themselves as potential leaders and show them through activities that they either have what it takes to be a leader or could easily develop what is needed (such as character, skills, and confidence).


A Comparative Study of Leadership Style in Higher Education in the United States and China by Xumei Fan & Ruiqin Gao

This study compared the leadership style in higher education in the United States with that in China. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among ten educators who had experience in higher education in both countries. Results indicated that leadership style differs in administrative structure, student affairs administration, professional rank promotion, and the role of academic deans. Universities in both countries share similar elements of transformational leadership style, their unique historical, geographical, political, and cultural environment help shape their leadership style. Findings from this study could provide valuable information to help enhance mutual understanding and promote educational communications.


The Level of Performance Management at Kuwait University by Nabila Y. AlKandari

The incorporation of performance management systems in colleges and universities is critical to developing competent professionals. The current study analysed college administrations at Kuwait University, evaluating the colleges’ administrative managers’ implementation of performance management from employees’ perspectives. According to the results, performance management is regarded as average.  Employees differ in their perceptions: male employees are more satisfied than female employees. Employees in scientific colleges are more satisfied than employees in humanities colleges. However, no differences in satisfaction were identified based on employees’ years of experience. The study recommends that competent performance management must be implemented properly, which is vital to improving the administration of the system. Significantly, training programs should be instituted to reinforce and strengthen the competencies of administrative managers and administrative employees.


Comparisons of Stakeholders Perceptions of Leadership Qualities of Education and Government Leaders by Dr. Michael Raney & Dr. Cash J. Kowalski

The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the perceptions of stakeholders on leadership qualities demonstrated by education and government leaders.  The study was designed to provide insight into the shortfalls of leaders in these two areas and into stakeholders’ perceptions of these qualities.  The target participants included 250 stakeholders (parents, guardians, and taxpayers) within the attendance area of five randomly selected schools in southwest Florida.  Participants included 50 randomly selected stakeholders, 25 males and 25 females, from each school. The survey on the leaders’ effective demonstration of nine essential leadership qualities was developed by the researchers based on an extensive review of literature.  The significance of this study is directly related to its analysis of qualities that impact student achievement and the effective demonstration of those qualities to stakeholders.  Education and government leaders make decisions that directly affect education, whether through budgets, school start dates, school climate, selection of standards, hiring of teachers, or school discipline. 


Linking Leadership Research and Communication Theory: A Comparative Analysis of Multi-Disciplinary Research Trends in Scholarly Databases by Christopher J. Fenner & Chris Piotrowski

A review of the scholarly literature indicates a significant body of both theoretical and applied research centered on the integral role of communication as a defining component of leadership. Yet prior studies have not examined the scope and breadth of the nexus of communication theories applied to leadership research. Recently, Fenner & Piotrowski (2018), in a comprehensive analysis of leadership studies, identified the major communication theories/models in this body of scholarship. As this extant literature spans interdisciplinary disciplines, it would be informative to determine the extent of coverage of the top communication theories across several major academic databases, stewards of repositories of published scholarship. Based on an online search of Communication Source, PsycINFO, and ProQuest, the analysis showed that of the 3 databases, ProQuest indexed the greatest volume of research output regarding communication theories whereas Communication Source had the fewest references. Moreover, the search for wire-feeds and newspaper reports in ProQuest indicated that there was much variability in coverage output across these theories. These results of this analysis suggest that academic scholars, researchers, and faculty in the field of communication need to embrace a multi-database search strategy when conducting comprehensive reviews of the literature on the topic of communication theories or models. The findings were discussed within the context of prior studies on the role of communication theory in leadership research.


Leadership Training as Part of the College Curriculum by Michael L. Raulin & Sharon Antonia Stringer

It has long been recognized that a good college education involves much more than just teaching students advanced academic content. College is where students learn to think, to communicate, and to solve complicated problems. But college also has the potential to facilitate the development of leaders, and this process does not require massive changes in the curriculum. Leadership may partly be a natural result of a higher education that trains and inspires students to think critically to solve current and future problems, but problem solving, and critical thinking are only some of the attributes that make an effective leader.  


A Comparative Study Between African-American Superintendents and School Board Members on Leadership Attributes That Contribute to Superintendent Longevity by Cynthia Wilson & Cash J. Kowalski

The purpose of this conceptual study is to offer propositions of the four categories of leadership attributes (skills, qualities, knowledge, and emotional intelligence/EQ) identified by African-American superintendents and their respective school board members that are comparable and contribute to longevity for superintendents beyond the national average of 3.64 years. These observations are based on the expert views of the two authors and evidence from a random sample of 100 school district African-American superintendents and their respective school board members selected from a national list of African-American superintendents (Wilson, 2014). The results of this conceptual study provide valuable information to current and future school superintendents on the leadership attributes identified by superintendents and school board members that are essential for superintendent success and longevity.


The Dark Triad in Leadership Research: The Adult Bully Syndrome in Action by Chris Piotrowski

The study of the ‘Dark Triad’ (Machiavellianism, narcissism, sub-clinical psychopathology) has attracted much research attention within the domain of personality theory over the past 2 decades. The aim of the current study is to identify key scholarly articles on the topic of leadership related to Dark Triad factors. To that end, a comprehensive search of the extant social sciences literature produced 22 studies on the Dark Triad-Leadership nexus. This review illustrates that research on this dynamism in the organizational milieu confirms that the Dark Triad contributes to a toxic interpersonal-social environment and is a significant factor in many counterproductive work behaviors. Moreover, scholars have suggested that the conceptual framework for this malevolent personality style needs further study which suggests that burgeoning research on the Dark Triad is seminal in nature. Further, the author suggests that the Dark Triad and the Adult Bully Syndrome are related conceptually. However, research to date has not discussed to what extent ‘publication bias’ may be a major limitation in obtaining a candid, valid perspective on the nature and impact of Dark Triad factors for those in leadership positions and subordinates in organizational settings.


Leadership Challenges at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: The Benefits of Collaboration by Dr. W. Franklin Evans, Dr. Ronnie Hopkins, & Dr. Diane Hulett

In the past, minority students, denied access to other institutions due to prejudice and racial discrimination, found havens of intellectual growth and career opportunity in the welcoming climate of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).  Today, talented minority students can attend any institution they choose, which has led to reduced enrollment, lower graduation rates and financial instability at many formerly thriving HBCUs.  Surveying current leadership at HBCUs, several specific leadership challenges were identified.  Despite the increased competition for students, HBCUs are finding creative ways, mainly through collaborative partnerships, to successfully meet and overcome these leadership challenges.  


Leadership Initiatives Inspired by New York City to Decrease Stigma to Mental Illness in Athens, Greece by Daphne Catherine Spyropoulos & Dr. Ion Beratis

This study aims to facilitate the creation of a leadership initiative that would ameliorate attitudes to mental illness of Athenian populations, based on the finding that they stigmatize psychopathology more than New Yorkers do. Suggesting that psychoeducational modalities applied in New York could be modified and applied in Athens, the researchers explore the characteristics of this attitudinal difference and compare the opinions of a sample of 406 people of both ethnic origins, in regards to their city of residence, their age and their gender. Through the analyses, the hypothesis that New Yorkers will be more accepting to mental illness was supported, while valuable information is gathered on the age and gender groups that leaders in Athens should primarily focus on.