Broadening the Theory of Planned Behavior with Destination Attachment and Risk Perception to Determine Voluntourism Experience Intention

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Christian Haposan Pangaribuan, Adler Haymans Manurung, Hardijanto Saroso, Toto Rusmanto


The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been employed in numerous studies to understand a wide range of intentions and behaviors in various fields. However, a little has investigated and extended the theory to explain tourists’ intention to experience volunteer tourism and behavior, by including destination attachment and risk perception. Data from a survey of 286 volunteer tourists in Indonesia, who at least participated once in a volunteer activity, was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. The findings from the structural equation modeling showed that efficacy is a significantly stronger predictor of intentions if mediated by attitude.

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