Psychology and Education Journal <h2><strong>PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION (ISSN: 1553-6939)<br /></strong></h2> <div class="row" style="border: 1px solid grey; padding: 5px; text-align: justify;">Dear Authors and Researchers,<br />We would like to inform you that the U.S. ISSN Center at the Library of Congress has confirmed that the correct ISSN number of the Journal <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> is ISSN 1553-6939. This ISSN is to be used instead of ISSN 0033-3077 which is the ISSN that belongs to the former title, “<strong>Psychology</strong>.” Each time a journal undergoes a major change of title a new ISSN is assigned. <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> also has been assigned a Linking ISSN (ISSN-L). The ISSN-L is available for use when there is a need to identify and link to a continuing resource without regard to format, for example in services such as OpenURL, library catalogues, search engines or knowledge bases. 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But the previous ISSN will be also available in the ISSN Portal to retrieve the record for <strong>Psychology</strong> because it remains the identifier for the former title <strong>Psychology</strong> and the articles published under that title.</div> <div class="row"> <p style="text-align: justify;"> </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Arts and Languages, Humanities, Social Sciences, Management and Economics, Law and Political Sciences, Sports Sciences, Psychology, Education Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, History, Philosophy, Media and Communication, Science and Technology, Engineering.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Psychology and Education</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 1553-6939)</strong> is a quality journal devoted to basic research, theory, and techniques and arts of practice in the general field of psychology and education. <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> is published bimonthly. 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Books for review should be sent to the Editor.<br />Articles in <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> are listed in PsycINFO, American Psychological Association (APA), Scopus,, and shared with other websites, and numerous gratis copies are mailed to the Library of Congress, EBSCO subscription services, and universities in developing countries overseas.</p> </div> Psychology and Education en-US Psychology and Education Journal 1553-6939 Hermeneutics between the epistemological foundation and the ontological foundation <p>This article aims to shed light on the hermeneutic project of both Wilhelm Dilthey and Hans Gadamer, and to clarify the most important common things between them, Hermeneutics has its roots in the depths of the ancient past, and it has passed through multiple phases through the successive stages of history, and its concept differed from one stage to another and according to the different starting points of philosophers.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; What is worth mentioning in this regard is that interpretation according to Dilthey is considered a basic and effective approach to get out of the method crisis in the humanities and rise to the science class, and to refute any metaphysical vision in understanding the human phenomenon that is inseparable from man.&nbsp;&nbsp; Gadamer was seeking to establish a universal interpretive philosophy, which includes an explicit call for the universality of interpretive practice through language as the home of existence and the mediator for the interaction of the ego with the other, which means that its essence is dialogue and not collision between various civilizations and cultures.</p> Laroussi Nadia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 60 2 1 21 Cultural diversity and non-violence Content analysis for the first year of the civic education textbook <p class="Normal1" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">The aim of this study is to shed light on the axis marked by multiculturalism and its role in establishing a culture of peace, for the first-year intermediate civic education textbook, from the standpoint that the school and the textbook are the basic base for building culture and behavior in general for the student.</span></p> <p class="Normal1" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">As the school is among the most important institutions of socialization that contribute to the development and development of the mental faculty of the individual as well as the acquisition of knowledge, it also helps him in the correct social integration in accordance with recognized social values.</span></p> <p class="Normal1" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">In this study, we also relied on the content analysis technique of the aforementioned axis, through units and categories that achieve the objectives set in the school program on the one hand, in addition to the most important international principles aimed at consolidating a culture of peace and coexistence on the other hand.</span></p> Elmahi Leyla, Benkhira Mohammed Elamin Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 60 2 22 32 German orientalists’ perspectives on issues of pre-Islamic poetry - imaginary and imagination <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Scholars from diverse groups, ideologies, and languages focused on pre-Islamic poetry, studied and critiqued it, then utilized its various issues as a starting point for numerous Arab and Western research. This latter group made a concerted effort to examine this legacy, and as a result, two perspectives emerged: one is in favor of its existence, and the other is opposed to it.</p> <p>The German Orientalist School, which focused on the study of pre-Islamic poetry, is one of these tendencies. While some of their research supported the existence of classical Arabic poetry, others cast doubt on it. Due to its significance for understanding and investigating our heritage, we will attempt to present and critique the many viewpoints in order to highlight the characteristics of German Orientalism and its perspective on the problems with Arabic literature. Its significance also comes from highlighting the fundamental contrast between the Arabs' perspective on our heritage and other people's attitudes about it.</p> Dr. Samia Kaaelkef Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 60 2 33 47 Ego dialectic, the other between the linguistic lesson and the psychological depth <p>Since language and literature cannot be detached from the psychological aspect, and we will not exaggerate if we say that it is the translation and expression of that sentence of feelings, emotions, impulses, and psychological impulses inherent in the human soul, it is not surprising that this close and deep-rooted relationship has been the focus of attention, study, and research of psychological or linguistic researchers, in order to reach these hidden links between the different souls and within them, and between their expressions and pronunciations, Through this we can uncover the secrets of the human self by deciphering symbolism and analyzing the psychological depth behind its writings and writings in its linguistic and literary heritage in general, So our research paper under the title " Ego dialectic, the other between the linguistic lesson and the psychological depth" It's a modest contribution to showing this relationship, and enriching the psychological linguistic studies that build, and address the problems of our reality Biscecolinguism, through an analytical reading of the official and popular texts.</p> Dr. Kamel Benalia, Dr. Yahia Zarga Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 60 2 48 60 The problem of achieving economic stability by examining the relationship between the three: inflation, unemployment, and economic growth <p>This study aimed to identify the relationship between inflation, unemployment and economic growth in Algeria during the period 1991-2019, by addressing some of the previous studies, using the descriptive method in addition to the experimental method in measuring this relationship using the VAR methodology, and The study concluded that there is a direct, significant, causal relationship between the variables of the study in the Algerian economy during the period 1991 - 2019 that contribute to achieving a balance that translates economic stability in the country through increasing growth rates and reducing both unemployment and inflation, in addition to the absence of a joint integration relationship between them.</p> Mahfoud Handaoui, Fairouz Cherayett Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 60 2 61 79 Visual Intelligence and its Relationship to Cognitive Preference in Science Among Intermediate School Students <p>The objective of this study is to identify the level of visual intelligence and its relationship to cognitive preference in science among intermediate school students. The current research was limited to a sample consisting of (150) in the governmental day schools affiliated to the Directorate of Education of Diwaniyah from the morning study. for the academic year (2022-2023), they were deliberately selected, and based on a proportional distribution. The researcher used the descriptive correlational research method, and to achieve the goals of the research, the researcher prepared two tools, the first tool (visual intelligence test), which in its final form consists of (15) items of the type (multiple choice) with three alternatives, The apparent validity and validity of the content were verified, and the difficulty coefficient, the discrimination coefficient, and the effectiveness of the alternatives for the objective items were extracted, and the stability of the test items was found using the internal consistency method (alpha-Cronbach coefficient). It reached (0.80), and the second tool (cognitive preference scale), which in its final form consists of (18) items distributed equally with three alternatives (always-sometimes-rarely) on the domains, namely:</p> <p>The capacity for retention, meaning, linking, derivation, synthesis, the property of multiple modes of cognitive representation, and its apparent validity and constructive validity were verified, and the discriminatory powers of its paragraphs, and its stability was calculated using the internal consistency method (alpha-Cronbach coefficient), as the stability coefficient reached (0.77), The psychometric properties of the paragraphs of the two scales were confirmed to be ready for the final application, and the statistical bag for social sciences (SPSS) was used in data processing, and the research found a correlation between visual intelligence and cognitive preference</p> Zaid Shaheed Al-Aboudi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-03 2023-04-03 60 2 80 106 Design a test to measure the perception of children aged 3 to 4 years <p>Cognition is a psychological process that contributes to the meaning and significance of objects, people, and situations that an individual deals with by organizing, interpreting, and formulating sensory stimuli in meaningful ways. The researcher envisaged building a test to measure and evaluate the cognitive process in children (03–04 years old) that was valid in the local environment and would be a tool for the specialists to appropriately diagnose cognitive disorders and problems in children. Furthermore, to provide an Algerian measuring tool, geared to the Algerian environment, while acknowledging the scarcity of the scientific field in this field and the use of this tool by specialists in the diagnosis and assessment of the cognitive side of children to ensure more efficient use. Building a comprehensive and reliable scale of assessment of cognitive function in a child&nbsp; (03 to 04 years). Is based on a sound approach, and the reliability and reliability of the contents of the results make it a reliable tool that would be an addition to the Algerian researcher and specialist. The test was applied to 90 cases of kindergarten children in Blida</p> Boulasnam karima, Prof. Dr.Rakza Samira Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-15 2023-04-15 60 2 107 123 The duality of physical activity and air pollution; What is the effect of air pollution on practitioners' health? <p>Many governments, organization, such as the World Health Organization, and scientists, are working on planning to raise the level of public health, and to combat many diseases that raise the death rate, by reducing the negative effects of air pollution, and increasing the level of physical activity that improves physical fitness and prevents many chronic non-communicable diseases. According to the current literature, researchers faced a dilemma related to physical activity during air pollution: "Does air pollution negate the benefits of physical activity?" The researchers differed in answering this question, but the majority indicated that air pollution does not negate the health benefits of physical activity, which prompted us to prepare this research paper to look at this dilemma by knowing physical activity, air pollution, and then linking physical activity during air pollution.</p> Mourad Hadj Ahmed, Mohamed Bougherbi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-15 2023-04-15 60 2 124 136 The effect of sports digital communication on the most important emotional determinants and some female students' volleyball skills <p>The purpose of this paper is to preparing a curriculum according to digital mathematical communication, and identifying the effect of sports digital communication on the most important emotional determinants and some female students' volleyball skills. The experimental approach was used in the experimental design of one experimental group (experimental). The research community was determined on (16) female students from the fourth stage in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Kufa for the academic year 2022-2023, (5) female students were chosen to conduct the exploratory experiment on them, and a whole community was chosen to apply the main experiment. One of the most important results reached by the researcher is that : Use of the curriculum according to a sports digital communication program had a positive impact on the most important emotional determinants and some female students' volleyball skills ,and use of the curriculum according to a program for sports digital communication is better than the used method that affected the emotional determinants and some of the students' volleyball skills. One of the most important recommendations recommended by the researchers is that&nbsp; : Adopting the curriculum according to a sports digital communication program because of its positive impact on the most important emotional determinants and some female students’ volleyball skills.</p> Lec. Zamn Turki Hashem , Assist. Lec. Rana Hussein Abdel-Sada , Assist. Prof. Dr. Ayman Hani Al-Jubouri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-24 2023-04-24 60 2 137 149 Computational thinking according to sensory modeling among university students <p>The current research aims to identify: -</p> <p>Computational thinking according to sensory modeling among university students. To achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher followed the descriptive approach. This required the provision of two research tools, the first to measure computer thinking and the second to measure sensory modeling. The researcher verified their validity after presenting them to a group of arbitrators. The researcher selected ( 378 ) male and female students appointed for the research and used the following statistical means: (Pearson correlation coefficient, excellence equation, t-test for two independent samples and the researcher reached several results:</p> <p>- University students (research sample) have a level of computational thinking.</p> <p>- The university students (the research sample) have a level of sensory modeling.</p> <p>Based on these results, the researcher came up with a number of&nbsp; conclusions, recommendations and proposals .</p> Ahmed hamzah kadhim atei AL fatlawi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-06 2023-05-06 60 2 150 173 Physical activity among women - a comparative study- <p>This study aimed to identify women’s physical activity level and compare it according to several variables by following a descriptive approach. and involving 114 women.&nbsp; A Questionnaire of physical activity level of El houzaa 2014 was used to collect data. The results showed that women are not active enough. The comparative results proved that there are statistically significant differences in the activity level in terms of health status, age, income and job. In light of these results, the researchers recommend the need to provide places for exercise in line with Algerian society values ​​and principles, raising women’s awareness about the need of <a href="">practicing sport and avoiding inactivity, women’s awareness of the importance of physical and sport activity in general because of its benefits on physical and psychological health.</a></p> Dr.Nacerbey Karima, Dr.Makhlouf Hasna, Dr.Guezgouz Fatah, Dr.Boudissa Lamia, Dr.Bellila Zakarya, Phd.Baghdadi Mohamed, Phd.Farah Khaled Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-06 2023-05-06 60 2 174 185 The relationship of government spending to economic growth in Algeria during the period 1967-2021 - The validity of Keynes' hypothesis or Wagner's law <p>The study aimed to test the extent and knowledge of the direction and nature of the relationship between government spending and economic growth in Algeria during the period between 1967-2021, and thus to test the extent to which the relationship corresponds to Wagner's law on the one hand or Keynes' hypothesis on the other hand. The cointegration test was relied upon to reveal the existence of a cointegration relationship between the variables of the study, and the Todayamamoto causation was used to determine the direction of the relationship between government spending and economic growth in Algeria and which of them causes the other to occur. The results of the Johanson test showed that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between government spending and economic growth during the period studied, the results of the Toda-Yamamoto causality test (TYDL) also indicated that there is a reciprocal causal relationship between government spending and economic growth in Algeria. In other words, government spending causes economic growth, and vice versa, and this confirms that both Wagner's law and Keynes' hypothesis are valid for studying the relationship between government spending and economic growth in Algeria during the period 1967-2021.</p> Hacene Bouamra, Noura Boualleg, Bouamra Ahmed, Brahem Ismail Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-06 2023-05-06 60 2 186 196 Linguistic stylistics and the question of method <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This article examines the methodological and epistemological relationship between stylistics as a critical theory, and linguistics as a linguistic theory, trying to elucidate the conceptual relationship that unites them, on one hand, their cognitive interaction under the guise of interdependence, on the other hand, their methodological difference under the cover of specialization. This article also attempts to explore the two disciplines in depth by discussing linguistic stylistics and its scope in contemporary linguistic and critical studies</p> Khadir Abderrahman, Nourelhouda Bekai Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-06 2023-05-06 60 2 197 219 Strategic diagnosis of Almarai Company <p>This study aimed to the strategic diagnosis of Almarai Company, as one of the leading companies in the food products industry. We have used the swot model of analysis, focusing on job analysis and Porter's five competitive forces model has been relied on, to identify opportunities that the organization can exploit and threats that should be avoided compared to competitors. The company's and competitor’s website were used to collect data as well as some electronic articles and annual report. We concluded that Almarai practice a vertical diversification and integration strategy as well as an acquisition strategy to increase the size of the company and provide ways to ensure the supply of raw materials and marketing products.</p> Fairouz Chine,Selami Khadidja, Noual Chine,Messaoudi Tahar,Trifa Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-06 2023-05-06 60 2 220 231 The effect of special exercises for a proposed device in improving some bio-kinetic variables and learning the performance of the Arabic jump skill on the floor mat device in artistic gymnastics for female students <p>Using a proposed device to learn the skill of the Arabic jump on the floor movement carpet device in artistic gymnastics.</p> <p><strong>The search problem:</strong> Through the presence of researchers as two teachers Observers of this sport in the gymnastics hall noticed that there is a difficulty in the students’ performance of the skill of the Arabic jump on the device . The rug of the earth's movements, according to the opinion of the researchers The reason for this is that skills are taught with the lack of assistive devices, as well as the lack of use of these devices in exercises according to bio variables. Kinematic, although it facilitates the learning process for these skills and works to shorten the time and effort in the learning process and enables the removal of difficulties encountered by the students during performance and helps in the process of diagnosing that performance as well as the use of devices increases the learner's desire and appetite for learning and enjoyment during performance . To study this problem through preparing special exercises using a proposed device to work on overcoming these difficulties and eliminating the weaknesses of the students while providing time and effort .</p> Assist. Prof. Dr. Wael Abbas Abdulhussein , Lec. Dr. Muntadher Mohammed Ali ,Zahraa Salah Abd Ali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-08 2023-05-08 60 2 232 245 Narrative Techniques in Al-Maqqari Al-Tilmisani 's Nafh al-Tib min Ghusn al-Andalus al-Ratib <p><em>The present paper deals with&nbsp; one of the most important Islamic &nbsp;writers , Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Al-Maqqari&nbsp; Al-Tilmisani and his&nbsp; narrative techniques used in his book &nbsp;Nafh al-Tib min Ghusn al-Andalus al-Ratib and Thaker Waserha Lasan Al Deen&nbsp; Bin Al Khateeb&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; .&nbsp; Nafh al-Tib min Ghusn al-Andalus al-Ratib&nbsp;&nbsp; is a book by a historian of a unique type&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; who sought&nbsp; to depict &nbsp;&nbsp;Andalusian &nbsp;&nbsp;culture as a unique culture&nbsp; .</em> <em>Al-Muqari divided his book into sections and sub-sections&nbsp; compatible with each other . He divided it into two main sections: the first concerns Andalusia and its news, and it has eight sub -sections . While&nbsp; the second section allocated it to introduce Lisan Al-Din Ibn Al-Khatib&nbsp; his&nbsp; news and the conditions of the scholars who touched on their mention. The paper comes to&nbsp; focus on the historical narratives as used as special technique in this book .&nbsp;&nbsp; In this book ,&nbsp;&nbsp; Al-Maqqari&nbsp; put his print in&nbsp; everywhere&nbsp; by&nbsp; giving a speech and&nbsp; lessons fill up with prophetic hadith , literature, history, biography, geography and translations . Al-Maqqari&nbsp; remained among the defenders of the Arabs and their culture and civilization, dedicated his life effort in defending the Arab legacy . He remained&nbsp;&nbsp; immigrant&nbsp; to trace knowledge&nbsp; until he passed away in 1041 Ah 1632 AD in Egypt, leaving behind many&nbsp; legacy&nbsp; in&nbsp; different fields .&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Mahdi Ali Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-11 2023-05-11 60 2 246 258 Role of Dating Violence victimization in depressive symptoms and PTSD among young females: A multivariate Approach <p>The present study aims to find the effect of dating violence victimization on depressive symptoms and PTSD symptoms among young females. A sample of females with age range 19 – 26 years from various universities of Punjab was selected using purposive sampling. Dating Violence Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory and Impact of Events Revised Scale were applied to this sample and only 194 females who scored at least 1 to dating violence questionnaire were included in sample. Using median split, two groups (high/low) were formed based on dating violence. Results showed positive correlation among dating violence, depression and PTSD symptoms. Further MANOVA results indicate that females higher on dating violence victimization have more depressive symptoms and PTSD symptoms as compared to low dating victimization. Limitations and further suggestions were discussed regarding present study.</p> Damanjit Sandhu, Mohd Ayub, & Kirandeep Kaur Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-20 2023-05-20 60 2 259 271 How to Get an Effective School: The Roles of Principal Leadership, Professional Teacher Behavior, and Student Learning Practices <p>The purpose of this study was to examine various factors of the principal's role in the development of teacher professional behavior in relation to student learning practices that predict on achieving an effective school. A stratified random sampling procedure was used to obtain 165 respondents from junior and senior high school teachers from a population of 9215 teachers. Using multiple regression and Exploratory Factorial Analysis to analyze the data with the help of SPSS. The results showed that the leadership role of the principal, the professional behavior of the teacher and student learning practices predicted effective school. There was a pattern showing that the role of the principal at the high school level was more effective than that of the junior high school. Further findings show that there are a number of significant latent structures for effective school in three dimensions and 12 sub-dimensions of the development of effective school modes. The school effectiveness model through this research provides useful information and is applied to policies to improve the quality of education.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Enjang Sudarman, Sri Wahyuningsih; Bambang Nurakhim; Sigit Priyono Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-20 2023-05-20 60 2 272 282 STATUS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ALIVE EDUCATION UNDER THE DEPED CURRICULUM IN SELECTED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF PIKIT <p>Educational system in the Philippines has undergone changes overtime, in the context of its educational planning, implementation and the <br>structure and content of its curriculum. Philippine is a multicultural archipelago which means that it is composed of diverse culture, to cater <br>inclusive education, educational stakeholders and institutions has all the motivation to provide quality and inclusive education through <br>different programs. The Department of Education initiatives to build communication as well as giving importance of cultural sensitivity, <br>Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education (ALIVE) program was established. ALIVE education was implemented and integrated to <br>DepEd curriculum which allows opportunities to both ALIVE Asatidz and Muslim students to both have the venue to western education <br>and cultural education. It is mechanism of providing education to the unreached children that is meaningful, relevant and culture sensitive <br>for Muslim societies (Nene Astudilla C. Godoy, et. al. 2008). Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education (ALIVE) program is one of <br>the avenues for peacebuilding between Muslims and Christians. National united people in the Philippines and intercultural solidarity are <br>the main objectives to keep country in peaceful life. The inclusion of ALIVE program in the public system has started in 2005 (Juliet <br>Sannad 2015).</p> Najieva S. Ibrahim, Guiaria S. Daud , Bai Dinah A. Sema , Meldred O. Baguio-Sorbito , Norhana P. Maguid , Jojo K. Guialel , Fauziyah S. Daud , Datuali S. Acob , Rahmia M. Meto , and Ruben I. Tilican Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-23 2023-05-23 60 2 283 291 Toilet Training: A Supplementary Recommendation <p>A brief note recommending a tactic to supplement practices taught in toilet training. It should prove effective <br>for children and developmentally disabled persons who have satisfactory manual dexterity, as well as people of all <br>ages. It presents a tactic for wiping following bowel movement that would be helpful for a variety of behavior <br>trainers, their clients, as well as the general public. It would also benefit the environment (reduced paper and water <br>waste).</p> Louis G. Lippman Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 60 2 292 293 Analysis of fertility trends in the state of Batna 1987-2008 using indirect estimates <p>Fertility is one of the thorny issues due to the large number of committees that have convened and dissolved and did not reach radical solutions, which worries officials due to their social, security, economic, and political repercussions on our society.</p> <p>This paper came to identify and evaluate the various previous demographic literature of studies and interventions, and the multiple attempts it contained to understand and study the contents of the fertility phenomenon, its nature and implications, and to monitor the problems associated with it, the importance of this study lies in monitoring population fertility in Algeria, specifically in the state of Batna, and its social and economic dimensions<em>,</em> ( <strong>There may be effects if the burden of population growth eases, but how that will happen remains unclear Economists and population analysts </strong><a href=""><strong>don't</strong></a> <a href=""><strong>fully</strong></a><strong> understand how the social, economic and cultural consequences will end).</strong></p> <p>To enable population policymakers and practitioners to have a more in-depth and detailed understanding of the dimensions and implications of this issue (<strong>as the population ages and the group of young workers decreases, some analysts are concerned about economic growth).</strong></p> <p>The element of fertility represents the main part of the population issue, so the focus is on this element and follow-up changes in it and monitoring and evaluating the features of the population situation in human societies, and the study concluded that the issue of population fertility, is ultimately only a behavioral issue characterized by its extreme variations and the overlap of factors affecting it, and the multiplicity of interpretations that it addresses,</p> <p>Therefore, the study and understanding of the conditions that dictated the formation of its features "population fertility", will contribute to enabling students to explain this phenomenon, identify the factors associated with it, and develop and crystallize appropriate population policies to deal with it.</p> Walid Khassam, Elamraoui Salah Eddine Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 60 2 294 314 Forms of Folklore south Algeria Hoggar Touareg as a sample <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This paper deals with the folklore South Algeria and its forms of expression used there, considered as cultural expressions and social practices common to a large group of individuals. The features of folklore are manifested through customs, traditions, values, arts, crafts, skills, and various popular knowledge produced by society, and formulated through its long experiences. This knowledge is used among them in a spontaneous manner, and they adhere to it in their behavior and dealings as Distinctive cultural patterns that link the present with the past, and link the individual to his community</p> Benramdane Fairouz Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 60 2 315 335 Manifestations of the implicit reader in the collection of the "Awakening of the clouds" by Abdullah Al-Ashi <p>This research paper aims to approach the aspects of the implicit reader's manifestations in the collection of the awakening of the clouds by Abdullah Al-Ashi, by touching on some of the textual signs that moved in the text to illuminate it and guide the reader in his reading and interpretive path, as well as opening the text to the spaciousness and multiplicity of reading and interpretation, as shown by those Signs are a phenomenon adopted by the text to reveal a certain intent and to attract the reader and involve him in the production and enrichment of meaning. In this study, I relied on the reading strategy from Weiser's perspective, which assumes the presence of the implicit reader as a pre-position in the text that would direct the real reader to explore the depths of the text and discover its secrets.</p> Aichaoui Nawal, Agha Aicha, Hakkoum Meriem Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 60 2 336 348 Barghawata, a new vision of its history <p>The aim of historical studies is not only a contribution to the discovery of humanity's past, but rather an aid in identifying how a person can integrate his multiple past into his permanent present and move towards the future. Therefore, studying the thought of the Barghawata state is an attempt to understand ourselves, and perhaps the best of what has been said about The topic is what the historian Mark Block answered his son to the question: Father, to what does history serve? To answer him, let’s understand.</p> <p>Therefore, in order to understand it, it is necessary for us to reconsider its thought within the series of events that led to its establishment, as we do not deny that the Barghawata state and its controversial thought have been dealt with by several historians and thinkers from the historical and epistemological side, and most of them agreed that it lasted for a long time and it was able to include a large alliance of several Amazigh tribes, and this rarely happens in the history of the Amazigh community. Therefore, the reason for its establishment and its separation from the centralization of the Umayyad state is mainly due to the Caliphate’s eagerness based on sanctifying the Arab element at the expense of the rest of the elements, and away from the interpretations of its deviation from the teachings of the Islamic religion, as it was considered a factor that confronts Arabization, not Islamization</p> Khedidja Chenaa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 60 2 349 359 Family values in ancient Egyptian thought <p>Values are related to the civilized structure of society by reflecting the prevailing culture, they are based on the criteria that make the act right or wrong, &nbsp;accordingly, this study highlights the features and characteristics of ancient Egyptian family values.</p> <p>One of the most important things we have reached is that the ancient Egyptian based on determining family values on the theory of reward and punishment in the court of Osruris, &nbsp;as well as a set of wise teachings and advice besides the authority of society, he saw the need to dye values with a religious character, otherwise, one would be misled by surrendering to desires. so he receives his worldly reward in his second life after death. This</p> <p>resulted in the orientation of the values of the ancient Egyptian family to virtuous moral standards, which had a great impact on the maturity of ancient Egyptian thought.</p> Soumia Chahbi, Belkacem Rahmani Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-30 2023-05-30 60 2 360 376 Drug abuse and addiction in Algerian society: causes and effects <p>The problem of drug abuse and addiction is one of the complex problems facing societies at present because of its bad and negative effects on individuals, families, and society, accordingly, the current research derives its importance from the youth stage importance due to its essential role in construction, development, and civilizational progress, otherwise, it may be a destructive force that threatens the stability, security, and development of society if it was related to drug abuse and addiction. This is what we touched on in our search by highlighting the most common reasons for Drugs abuse, their addiction, and their effects among Algerian youth</p> Mohamed Ferdjani, Djemoui Belarbi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-30 2023-05-30 60 2 377 392 The construction of the Muslim problem in France: Socio-historical study <p>In this article we want to know how the Muslim question which has become central in the representations of public opinion. We now postulate that television as a means of information has played an essential role in the construction of the Muslim problem in France through the media coverage of this question, thus arousing political and academic debates. Our approach captures the Muslim problem as the product of a social fabrication aimed at concealing the real problems of French society by shifting the debate from economic subjects to cultural and identity subjects.</p> Benali Rabah Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-31 2023-05-31 60 2 393 405 The impact of economic diplomacy on trade openness using gravity models: Case study of some African countries <p>This study aimed to determine the effects of the diplomatic representation of each of Algeria on the African continent, as well as the diplomatic representation of African countries in Algeria, on the volume of trade exchanges between the latter during the period (2007-2021), This is based on the Panel Data in the standard estimation and modeling process. The study found that the diplomatic representation of the African countries in Algeria had a positive impact on the volume of trade openness of the national economy and with a high elasticity exceeding the value of 0.25%, meaning that the diplomacy of the African economy contributed positively to influencing the trade exchange of its countries with Algeria, While the opposite result was reached with regard to the Algerian economic diplomacy, which had a negative impact on the rates of trade openness in Algeria, meaning that the Algerian diplomacy did not perform the role required of it with regard to enhancing cooperation and trade integration between Algeria and the countries of the African continent.</p> HOUADJI GHANIA, BENYABA MOHAMMED Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-31 2023-05-31 60 2 406 420 The trans-diagnostic current in pathological psychology alternative to nosography classifications and therapeutic prospects-Towards a contextual functional view of mental disorders <p>Parallel to the emergence of the third wave of cognitive behavioral therapies, a new trend emerged in the field of interpretation and diagnosis of mental disorders calling for the need to stop conceiving suffering and psychological difficulties as symptoms of the disease, and therefore must move away from categorical diagnoses of the type of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).</p> <p>The stream of transitory diagnosis, or as it is called the psychological contexts model in psychopathology, takes into account the formulation of the individual psychological interpretation, so it is a matter of examining the different types of psychological contexts (cognitive, emotional, motivational, relational and identity) and trying to integrate them into a coherent interpretation, which also leads To determine as much as possible the biological role and social and situational factors. Such a person-centered approach makes it possible to approach the dynamics of rational psychological functioning in all its complexity and in its unique expression.</p> Naima Ait Guenissaid, Hanane Guehiri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-03 2023-06-03 60 2 421 440 The Identity and Integration Challenges Facing Muslim Immigrants in the West: France as a model <p>The issue of identity and integration of Muslim immigrants in Western countries is one of the most difficult challenges facing Western governments. Muslim immigrants face several difficulties in integrating into new societies due to differences in their customs and ways of life, especially as Western societies have become more rigid towards Arab and Islamic cultures and traditions.</p> <p>This article attempts to approach the issue of identity as one of the fundamental and sensitive dimensions of any self-sustaining society that maintains its specificities. This is done by focusing on the idea of cultural and religious identity as representing the basic foundation for resilience and confronting the challenges of assimilation into other cultures, which possess a particular strength that can impose itself on contemporary life on many levels.</p> Boukrou Nacer Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-05 2023-06-05 60 2 441 457 The impact of sustainable tourism in preserving the urban heritage in the city of Biskra <p>This study seeks to know the reality of the process of attracting tourists to Biskra, taking the architectural and urban identity as a tool for that, and its role in the tourism industry and activating the attraction of tourists. The shape and development of cities in general, and desert cities in particular, helps greatly in understanding the phenomenon of architectural mediocrity and the disappearance of the features of the original cities, and the search for solutions to restore the aesthetic image with its own architectural and urban features, which would make it preserve its identity and its cultural and historical affiliation, and thus development Heritage tourism is one of the most important tributaries of tourism, and heritage elements are considered among the most important elements of tourist attractions, which has become known as heritage tourism. Tourists The research reached a set of results, the most important of which is that there is a relationship against statistical significance between heritage tourism and its role in the tourism industry and activating the process of attracting tourists. The study recommended a set of recommendations.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The interest in restoring archaeological sites in Algeria has a major role in attracting tourists and activating the tourism process towards archaeological sites in giving more attention to the activities and heritage festivals that are held in historical sites, because of its great role in attracting tourists from activating the tourism process</p> MEKIHEL Khadidja Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-06 2023-06-06 60 2 458 470 The relationship of the school environment with the educational return of the educational institution -a field study in Batna primary schools <p>The objective of this field study was to investigate the relationship between the school environment and the educational return of the educational institution from the point of view of teachers and managers. The study sample consisted of 238 teachers and directors, to whom a two-part questionnaire was applied: (management of the school environment and educational returns)</p> <p>The following conclusions were reached:</p> <p>The level of management of the school environment in primary schools from the point of view of principals and teachers has been moderate.</p> <p>The level of school earnings in the school environment is moderate.</p> <p>The value of the relationship between the two variables: the management of the school environment and the educational dividend has reached the field of study (0.35).</p> Dr. Mebrouk Meriem , Dr.Benkherrour Khireddine Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-06 2023-06-06 60 2 471 486 Legal protection of livestock in Algerian law <p>The protection of biodiversity from the risk of abuse and exploitation is a thorny topic that has resonated in the international community and domestic legislation as it is necessary in the process of environmental and natural balance ", especially in the era of globalization and biotechnology, which would naturally lead to an imbalance in the ecological balance process in the absence of legal controls, Livestock in all its varieties is one of the most attractive areas of this lasting development through the exploitation to which it may be subjected by legitimate or illegal means, such as the exploitation of poaching leading to extinction or any sabotage of these fauna, which has led the international community to conclude many international conventions, including Algerian legislation, in order to preserve such livestock</p> Imane Labassia Chettih Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-06 2023-06-06 60 2 487 498 The Importance Of Physical Fitness In Reducing Obesity <p>we aim through this study to identify the effects of physical activities in reducing obesity spreading which is one of this century diseases. obesity level had already increased in lots of industrial countries, and now it's making his way to developing countries as reports from&nbsp; health world organization indicates and&nbsp; warn this spreading of obesity and the importance of taking measure against it . physical activities as known are not&nbsp; specialized for a group of members or a unique gender. the fact is&nbsp; it's a human need for it's cure and rehabilitation for membres, and what we want to know for this subject is how physical activity can help reduce obesity level?</p> Demdoum Hammou, Bouzahar Mohamed Lakhdar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-06 2023-06-06 60 2 499 514 Psychological adjustment of the hearing-impaired child through family drawing: a differential study between integrated and non-integrated children <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This research paper aimed to study the psychological adjustment among the hearing-impaired child through his drawings, by conducting a differential study of integrated cases and non-integrated cases of hearing-impaired children in the city of Laghouat. The interview and the family drawing test were used to investigate the variables of the study. After presenting and analyzing the results, it was concluded that the integrated hearing impaired showed more psychological adjustment than the non-integrated hearing impaired</p> Brahimi Souad , Zaabta Sirine Hadjer Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-06 2023-06-06 60 2 515 532 The relational reality between Islamic and Western civilization Reading in the vision of Abi al-Hasan al-Nadawi <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The content of this study revolves around the nature of the relationship established by the vision of the Islamic thinker Abi al-Hasan al-Nadawi. Both of them were presented in a fair, critical spirit that did not contain bias or falsification, and thus presented the reality of the crises that Western civilization suffers from, despite its possession of the means of material strength. With a correct approach that seeks to include the human family, united by human elements, and whose members live in the shade of justice and equality, and reject all corruption and injustice.</p> Dr. Diafi Noureddine, Dr. Chalabi Nabila Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 60 2 542 557 Unveilling the interpretation of opinion <p>This study deals with interpreting quran with view and this was one of the consepts which needs to lighten in islamic studies. the aim of this article is to display that there are two kinds of interpreting with view one is accepting where as the second is rejecting</p> Ghoraf Kouider Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 60 2 533 541 The effect of high-intensity interval training on the strength of speed and the performance of the shooting skill from the advancement of handball <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study aims to show the Interval Training on muscular strength and shooting skills to upgrade the sport of Handball, and that is to rely on an experimental study where the researcher chose the “collective group” method, which was conducted on a sample of 17 players from the Sports’ Associa ion of the municipality of El-Kaderia which competes in the Bouira Handball State League. And after practicing the Plyometric Training exercises and collecting the before and after data for the explosive power and briskness of the legs and overhead shooting, the researcher analyzed this data statistically using arithmetic means, standard deviation, Pearson correlation coefficient, and T-test using two correlated samples, then it was concluded that Interval Training develops the briskness of&nbsp; legs and arms and therefore enhances overhead shooting skills, and because of that, it is recommended to urge coaches to use the Interval Training method due to its importance in developing the physical and technical aspects, and refraining from the traditional methods used currently in training, and insuring the necessity to correlate between some physical and also kinetic skills and the performance of different techniques in Handball, and to include the aforementioned methods due to their importance in multiple techniques.</p> Laidani Hakim, Saidi Amine Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 60 2 558 564 Curriculum plans and their impact on developing competencies and achieving educational quality. An applied study on the teaching of Islamic education for the first stage primary students <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study aims to read about the reality of the methods of teaching Islamic education to the students of the first stage of primary school, in a reading of the curricula and contents and what is required for teaching the material for this course, starting from the teaching methodology to the extent to which goals and competencies are achieved and what is required for that in the horizons by linking it to the Islamic sciences curricula that do not Nobody doubts the existence of a positive effect in enhancing educational competencies and improving the quality of education, especially in the same subject; And in an attempt to strengthen the shortcomings and address the educational problems faced by the learner and the teacher in the primary school in Algeria, especially for non-specialists in Islamic sciences who are entrusted with the subject of Islamic education during the phases of primary education, or who are not studying it in the first place, who do not fully understand the philosophy of the subject, its objectives and teaching curricula. Its various contents as disciplines within an existing field and has its own fields and curricula.</p> Dr. Maidi Abderrahmane, Dr. Ounnassa Hamdi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 60 2 565 574 Social media and rumors: Mechanisms and confrontation in the Corona crisis <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This paper examined the recent online rumor associated with the coronavirus crisis, and how it was able to spread more sharply with the possibilities offered by social media sites, as its promoters relied on the exploitation and adaptation of these sites to achieve their goals, in the absence of censorship and social and legal responsibility.</p> <p>Electronic propaganda as news that may carry a lot of false and fraudulent anonymity is spreading confusion, chaos and sedition. Facebook's most widely used site in the COVID-19 crisis has found more space and fertile space to spread.</p> Dr. Saida Abbasse Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-09 2023-06-09 60 2 575 585 Harga in Algeria: from merits to evolution Burning phenomenon in Algeria <p>Algeria moved from a transit area for illegal immigrants to a country of source for illegal immigrants, because its history witnessed waves of migration from its lands towards the north, especially to France during and after the liberation revolution, but the new face as a country of source for immigrants remains an outsider to its history in its relationship with countries In the North, these illegal immigrants, or as the term Harga is known, are illegal immigrants</p> <p>Their massive emergence coincided with a set of changes that occurred in the social, political and economic field. The security slips and the low standard of living for the individual led to a social crisis that did not find an echo on the political level. This blockage strongly contributed to the formation of this category of society that believes only in burning, especially since the The desired reception provides these harragas, according to their view, with incentives that were absent in their home country.</p> Moussaoui Fatima Nabila Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-09 2023-06-09 60 2 586 609 Enlightenment of Ibn Rushd from Islamic to Latin context <p>This study seeks to contribute to the cultural and civilizational debate of the Dialogue (Orient/Occident), as elaborated in the writings of those concerned with the problems of the relationship between current knowledge, scientific achievement and philosophy, in the Arab-Islamic cultural heritage of Andalusia. Especially after the research into this relationship became promising, given the role played by the translation of Ibn Rushd's literature in enriching the rational culture in Europe. This is through his extensive explanations, on a number of Aristotle essays, as his annotations on the famous L essay, and what he called the great explanation on the book “About Soul” by Aristot.</p> khirallah Souhila, Ahmed Zighmi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-09 2023-06-09 60 2 610 628 The poetics of the contemporary Algerian poem and the stakes of renewal - the poems of AZZEDIN Mihoubi as a model - <p><strong>&nbsp; </strong><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>The experience of the poet "Azzedine Mihoubi" is the subject of our study, in which we dealt with: "Poetry and Poetry - Term and Concept", the contemporary Algerian poem and the performance structure, intersection or continuity?, the poetic rhythm in the contemporary Algerian poem, the intersection of symbol and myth in the contemporary Algerian poem, poetics and horizons The content renewal in the contemporary Algerian poem, and the study led to the fact that the rhythm is consistent with the psychological states of the poet, where calm prevailed over emotional topics and whispered voices abounded in them, while the themes of enthusiasm were dominated by voiced voices to fit with the strong and noisy impact, as well as fertile and rich connotations for the dictionary. Linguistically, through the diversity of contents, the Algerian poem achieved rare poetry, as it represented the pinnacle of artistic maturity, as it provided aesthetic and expressive value through its rhythmic structure, the ability of the poet to renew in meter and rhyme, and diversify in the forms of the poem, in addition to the internal rhythm created by the repetition of sounds and vocabulary. And dense poetic structures and images, in addition to the adoption of emotional and political themes by Algerian poets.<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> Phd. Boukabous Rima, Dr. Bourahla MAlika, Dr.Bouzid Mouloud Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-10 2023-06-10 60 2 629 648 Internet addiction among university students -A field study at the University of Lounici Ali Blida 2- <p>This article aims to present a field study that aims for a set of objectives, namely measuring the level of Internet addiction among university students and knowing the nature of differences in their Internet addiction level according to gender and scientific specialization. &nbsp;Therefore, the descriptive approach, which is considered the most appropriate for such studies, was adopted on a sample of (200) university students, male and female, by applying the measure of addiction to the Internet among university students by the researcher Muhammad Ahmed Shaheen (2015), and therefore the results of the study revealed that there is a medium level of addiction to The Internet among university students, and there are statistically significant differences in the level of Internet addiction among university students due to the variable of gender and scientific specialization</p> Lehama Houria، Saadi Samia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-10 2023-06-10 60 2 649 661 The impact of financial inclusion on economic development in Arab countries <p>This study aimed to measure the impact of financial inclusion on economic growth in a sample of Arab countries during the period from 2011 to 2017. Due to the nature of the data used in the study, which represents a combination of time series and cross-sectional data, panel models (pooled model, fixed effects model, and random effects model) were employed and compared to determine the most efficient and statistically significant model for economic analysis. Additionally, a multivariate statistical analysis technique, namely cluster analysis, was adopted to study and discuss the status of financial inclusion and the variations among Arab countries in this regard.</p> Benyaba Mohammed, Mostefaoui Sofiane, Bouchentouf Moulay Mostapha, Mohammed Benabderrahmane Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-10 2023-06-10 60 2 662 676 The historical hero in Algerian children's literature Critical perspective <p>The historical reference is one of the most important references on which literature in general and childhood literature in particular, with its diversity in events and personalities, and the educational value it carries rooted in time, where the character of the historical hero plays a pivotal role in making and crystallizing the exemplary image of the Algerian child, especially as it It is closely related to its distant and near past, which instills in itself a love of the homeland and a love of everything related to this homeland. There is no doubt that the employment of the historical hero in children's literature did not take a single appearance, and this is due to the different purposes for which he was employed, so this intervention seeks to trace the transformations of the presence of the historical hero in Algerian children's literature through some literature in this field.</p> PHD, Mehadi Mounir Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 60 2 677 688 The authority of the Algerian state to expel foreigners residing within its territory <p>The Algerian government possesses the right to expel foreigners residing within its territory if there are valid grounds for deportation, resulting in a series of legal implications. To ensure the legitimacy of such decisions, the Algerian legislature offers foreigners a set of guarantees to challenge deportation orders, which may encompass both administrative and judicial measures, guided by principles of humanitarian treatment</p> Amina Rahaoui Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 60 2 689 710 Quality of life for diabetic patients <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The aim of this study is to identify life quality of diabetic patients and the differences attributed to the gender, educational level and type of diabetes. The sample of the study consisted of 55 diabetic patients: (20) female and (35) male. To achieve the objectives of the study we relied on the descriptive method and used the word health organization quality of life scale. Results of this study revealed a difference significant statically between the dimensions (health, physical, social….), male and female, educational level in the quality of life for diabetic patient.&nbsp; And no difference in the quality of life due to the diabetes type</p> Dr.BELFILALI LOUBNA Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-17 2023-06-17 60 2 711 727 The Impact of Compensations and Insurance Premiums on the Financial Solvency of Insurance Companies Using Dynamic Panel Models -A Case Study of Algerian Insurance Companies- <p>This study aimed to measure the impact of both compensations and insurance premiums on the financial solvency of a sample of insurance companies operating in Algeria during the period from 2012 to 2020. Dynamic panel models were employed to measure the effect of explanatory variables on financial solvency in both the long and short terms using the Pooled Mean Group Method (PMG) approach.</p> Razzougui Youssef, Benlaria Mohammed, Ould Bahammou Samir Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-17 2023-06-17 60 2 728 739 The openness of the historical approach to the levels of Quranic knowledge_ Any addition? _ <p>The study presents another unusual proposal, according to our estimation, on the issue of the historical method and the issue of its development in the human fields. The development of the latter depends on the development of the researcher’s cognitive level, and since the Holy Qur’an is a comprehensive divine book, it deals with human cognitive levels, starting with the sensory level, then the mental level, up to the heart level, the latter being absent in human studies due to Western biases that recognize the sensory level and deny everything that is unseen. Or my God, and this is what made us think, as much as possible, to return the research methodology in general, the historical method in particular, to the Holy Qur’an, and to think about developing it to a level that makes it more effective than it was</p> Billel Boussena Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-17 2023-06-17 60 2 740 758 The Asymmetric Impact of Oil Price Fluctuations on the Economic Diversification Index in Algeria during the Period (1996-2019) <p>This study aimed to measure the asymmetric impact of fluctuations in oil prices on the economic diversification index in Algeria during the period (1996-2019), based on nonlinear time gap autoregression models (NARDL) where the index was adopted. As a dependent variable explained by both positive and negative shocks in oil prices.</p> <p>The study found that there is a positive impact of positive values in oil prices on the economic diversification index in the short term corrupt, while the decline in oil prices leads to a decline in the economic diversification index in the short term with higher flexibility than that recorded as a result of high oil prices, while the economic diversification index responds only positively to the decline in oil prices in the long term, while the rise in oil prices has not had any impact on the economic diversification of Algeria in the term. Long</p> Ben Abderrahmane Abdessamed, Dahhou Mohammed, Akabli Abdelkader Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-17 2023-06-17 60 2 759 771 Corruption and internatitnal efforts to combat corruption <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study aims at identifying the corruption and efforts of a group of countries in the fight against corruption and the methods and procedures of combating it in each country and what are the different treaties, commitments and international organizations that are working to combat this dangerous phenomenon which affect the economies of countries and their security and stability. We have addressed the concept of corruption, its manifestations, causes, effects and mechanisms in a number of countries, as well as various treaties and obligations among States to combat this dangerous phenomenon. We have finally come up with a set of recommendations to root out this phenomenon through a variety of methods and procedures.&nbsp;</p> Dr.Fatima Zohra Gramez Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-18 2023-06-18 60 2 772 788 The rule of filling pretexts in the matters of Masyar's marriage and compensation for arbitrary <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study aims at identifying the corruption and efforts of a group of countries in the fight against corruption and the methods and procedures of combating it in each country and what are the different treaties, commitments and international organizations that are working to combat this dangerous phenomenon which affect the economies of countries and their security and stability. We have addressed the concept of corruption, its manifestations, causes, effects and mechanisms in a number of countries, as well as various treaties and obligations among States to combat this dangerous phenomenon. We have finally come up with a set of recommendations to root out this phenomenon through a variety of methods and procedures.&nbsp;</p> Rabah Lahoues, Dr. Noureddine Nannech Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-18 2023-06-18 60 2 789 809 The Bergsonian Personality Between the Metaphysics of the Self and the Psychology of Speech <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This article presents a thorough analysis and concise description of the personality of Henri Louis Bergson, the veteran French philosopher who introduced a unique philosophy that is neither Kantian nor Cartesian but, in general, constructs a new concept of metaphysical realism that transcends extreme materialistic scientific perspectives. The core of Bergsonian personality revolves around the notion of pure duration, based on the profound sense of intuition. Its focal point is the human being who possesses the essence of vital freedom. Bergson, for those unfamiliar with his complete works, sought to comprehend existence through the spontaneity of spiritual experience inseparable from the struggles and realities of life. His books and writings, characterized by an encyclopedic tendency, represent a blend of evolutionary metaphysics, functionalistic esthetics, psycho-sociological perspectives, and mystical insights in his final days</p> Dr. Mostefai Abdelkader Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-19 2023-06-19 60 2 810 824 Educational strategies for caring for students with learning difficulties <p>Facing the challenges in the educational system and education and delving into the midst of the Algerian school must delve into its problems and distinguish them.&nbsp;Among these problems are learning difficulties, both of which are circulating among some students, and the resulting problems that affect in one way or another, first the student himself, then the teacher, as well as the school and the future of society. &nbsp;Therefore, plans and studies must be developed on this phenomenon, which has been circulating among students, due to several reasons.&nbsp;Therefore, the concerned bodies must take the necessary measures to protect students from this phenomenon, through well-studied procedures and laws based on purposeful scientific educational foundations, including the attempt to integrate Education for pupils with learning difficulties in regular departments after they were subjected to educational strategies.&nbsp;Accordingly, we will try in this research paper to clarify educational teaching strategies for the care of people with learning difficulties</p> Zougaie Mounia, Chali khayra, Bahmed oussama Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-19 2023-06-19 60 2 846 855 Manuscript "Ahdá al-Muhdī fi Takhmīs Lāmīyat Ibn al-Wardī" by Shaykh Yūsuf al-Maghribī (d. 1019 AH) -Introduction and Investigation <p>This is a manuscript investigation: "Ahdá al-Muhdī fi Takhmīs Lāmīyat Ibn al-Wardī" to Sheikh Yusuf al-Maghribi who died in 1019 AH, who made a Takhmis of the famous poem in the poetry of wisdom and asceticism composed by Sheikh Abu Hafs Omar Ibn al-Wardi, who died in 749 AH, and he added to it a conclusion by praying for the Prophet- Peace be upon him- and his honorable companions. and the most important benefit that came out of this research is to take this work out of the world of manuscript to printed.</p> Abdelghani nasri , abdelhak khelifi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-22 2023-06-22 60 2 856 871 Investigating the Cultural Elements in the English Textbooks Used in the International Schools in Turkey <p>The sociocultural theory, which portrays learning as a social activity, and the idea that culture and language are inextricably linked have contributed to the recent increase in prominence and focus on integrating culture in ELT, notably in EFL textbooks. In the twenty-first century of globalization, English has become more significant as a worldwide language and lingua franca. As a result, new directions in ELT have emerged, like enhancing intercultural competency. Since 2012, Iraq has adopted the "English for Iraq" (EFI) series of textbooks which seem to lack orientation towards intercultural competence. This paper aims to determine how the intercultural materials of EFI textbooks are presented and whether they develop Iraqi learners' intercultural competence. A descriptive content analysis is used to assess the texts and images in the three textbooks used in intermediate schools, based on an adaptation of Byram's (1997) paradigm. This study will also investigate whether there is sufficient information about Turkey and Turkish culture regarding the location of these international schools. Suppose it is understood that there is no information available. In that case, suggestions will be made to review the English Iraqi textbook series used in private international schools in Turkey in this matter. Results demonstrate that intercultural elements in textbooks exhibit sharp disparities in the frequency of their occurrences, presenting an unbalanced intercultural presentation with a knowledge-oriented majority of primarily fact-stating items. The study also reveals that While these texts do not enhance the intercultural competency of Iraqi EFL students, the research has pedagogical ramifications concerning reviewing the inclusion of culture in Iraqi EFL textbooks to keep up with current trends and ELT objectives to foster students' tolerance, empathy, and respect for difference.</p> Ayat Khalaf Maftool Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 60 2 872 885 Self Representations and Manifestations of Heroism in The Narrative of Al Sira Al Hilaliya <p>The popular biography is a unique text that is open to different literary geners and different cultural formats, thanks to its formative structure and stylistic characteristics, it has been able to comprehend much of the details of the life of the arab human being, So, it has conveyed to us a full picture of scenes and visions that honestly reflected the features of his life, his view on life and the nature of his interaction with ideas and situations.</p> Meriem Zennour Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-08 2023-07-08 60 2 886 898 Introducing administrative development <p>All countries seek to achieve progress and prosperity in various fields, and many countries have confirmed that the way to achieve this is to pay attention to the administrative aspect because it is the basis for success in all fields. Administrative development, its characteristics and importance, as well as approaches to its development. Therefore, we will divide our research into two sections, the first showing the nature and types of administrative development, and the second the entrances to administrative development.</p> Dr. Riad Hamid Tayes Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 60 2 899 916 Improving the visibility of conference proceedings by characterizing scientific event data using the Semantic Web <p>While semantic web technologies have facilitated search and discovery, the problem of visualizing conference proceedings on the web still faces a series of challenges, the most important of which is the lack of a fully accepted, unified ontology that can be used to characterize scientific demonstration data. Therefore, the aim of the research was to find a web ontology to define the concepts and vocabulary that would allow us to describe the data in the field of scientific demonstrations, so that this data can be published in the form of linked data on the web and made available for reading, understanding and processing by the machine; the process of building automated conference management systems that use this data was facilitated; the ontology was edited using the protege tool, and the study eventually reached a number of results, most notably: identifying data in the field of scientific demonstrations, describing them and giving them a meaning the machine can interpret. An anthology was built that includes the necessary vocabulary to describe data related to scientific demonstrations. The ontology includes a set of classes and properties, and each class and property is provided with a brief description, to facilitate the reuse. And the ability to publish data related to scientific events in the form of linked data, with the aim of improving the visibility of conference proceedings on the web</p> Abderazek Bousmina, Kamel Battouche Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-16 2023-07-16 60 2 917 935 Psychological assessment of a schizophrenia case using the Rorschach comprehensive system <p>Schizophrenia is a mental&nbsp; disorder&nbsp; or disease basically diagnosed by a psychiatrist, however,&nbsp; psychologists could be requested for a psychological assessment , in this case the use of the Rorschach comprehensive system allows a fine evaluation of various psychological, and cognitive processes such as information processing, and emotional processes including stress management and relational processes within self-perception and perception of relationships,&nbsp; it allows&nbsp; also to establish a diagnosis in order to spot the overall psychological functioning of the subject.</p> <p>This simultaneous reading of the various clinical signs expressed and identified through the clinical mental examination and the psychological examination, allows to identify the disorder under its multiple aspects and to define the best therapeutic approach that suits the patient</p> Katiba Bouchicha Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-16 2023-07-16 60 2 936 951 The Paradox phenomenon genealogy <p>The study intends to delve into the roots of the phenomenon of paradox genetically, as it has become a matter of serious interest in the propositions of all sciences and intellectual currents. It occupies a pivotal position in the modern theorization of everything. Where more than one discipline devotes itself it, and more than one school deals with it, on top of which are the philosophical schools and the various contemporary literary schools. The limit of confusion, difference, discrepancy, and contradiction, or the limit of conflict and conflict between peoples whose sects and sects are diverse, which is to make finding a specific and accurate definition of it close to impossible. Due to its long forked history; It is like an entity whose parts were torn apart in the horizons without agreement, and it was distributed among scientists, mathematicians, philosophers, linguists, and others who dealt with it, each with its own specialization. And they developed it so that it has meaning and intent in every context in which it appears, and this is what made it vary according to the space and the level in which it is located. In order to reach this, we will adopt a conceptual, inductive, statistical and analytical approach, in order to finally clarify the roots and extensions of this phenomenon</p> Abdelhadi Djameleddin, Abed bensahnoun Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 60 2 952 967 EFFECT OF DROUGHT ON WATER RESOURCES IN THE SEMI-ARID REGIONS OF ALGERIA. CASE OF THE BASIN OF THE HIGH PLATEAUS OF CONSTANTINE <p>Algeria is one of the most countries likely to be affected by drought, which is typically caused by the effects of climate change. Studies showed that drought periods might become more frequent due to climate change, which threatens wealth, whereas the lack of strategies muddles water and policies to mitigate their negative impacts on water resources. Since Algeria is experiencing increased demand for this critical substance, it is also experiencing scarcity and depletion of its water resources because of a variety of human and natural factors, particularly the drought caused by low rainfall rates. This article aims to show how drought affects water resources in the basin of the high Plateaus of Constantine by using the rainfall measurement index (SPI). The basin is known for being in a semi-arid climate and having natural features like a widening of the drought circle in both space and time, which leads to a decrease in its potential and water resources.</p> Boublat Younes Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-18 2023-07-18 60 2 968 984 AUTOMATIC NUMBER PLATE RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION USING OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION <p>The increased security concerns in hotels, government facilities and business buildings require identifying entering vehicles and controlling access to these facilities. The platform is automated with license plate recognition based on images of vehicles. However, in situations where standardized plates are not used, image-based recognition. License plate, police and background deformation. Traditionally human beings do this job, and gate keepers need to stay alert for long hours, check vehicles entering to the facility and manually keep data about those cars. This tedious and inefficient process demands excessive energy from security personnel and creates inconveniences and possibly security loophole in these premises. To overcome these shortcomings, this work proposes a prototype design for an automatic gate access controlling system which scans the vehicle plate numbers using a camera and optical recognition algorithm and compares it with the records stored in the database to decide whether to allow the car or not.</p> DR. S. RAJ KUMAR, AMBAKANTI LASYA, BATTINI HARSHITHA, BEJJORA GANGA, JYOTHICHETTI RAVALI Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-18 2023-07-18 60 2 985 994 HUMAN ACTION RECOGNITION USING DEEP LEARNING AND OPENCV <p>With the rise of terrorist round the world, human identification research has become a asked for area of research. Unlike standard biometric recognition techniques, gait recognition may be a non-intrusive technique. Both data collection and classification processes are often avoided a subject’s cooperation. During this work, we proposed a replacement model-based gait recognition technique called postured based gait recognition. The datasets are obtained by analyzing the freestyle walk of a private and that we have trained a machine learning model with these datasets so as to predict who the individual is. By storing the model we will successfully predict who a personal is by giving a picture or video as input. The proposed system performs well for varying class sizes and may help implementing a reliable security closedcircuit television.</p> M.RAMARAO, AITHA HARSHITHA, BUJJI GEETHIKA, C VAISHNAVI, BOYA RENUKA Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-18 2023-07-18 60 2 995 999 The conditional, the comparison and the modalisation as linguistic processes, for a pragmatic analysis of A quoi rêvent les loups by Mohammed Moulesshoul <p>Our article is part of the analysis of discourse and more precisely an analysis specific to literary discourse. Our objective is to detect the sources and the linguistic processes which convey the plurality of voices, in order to achieve our polyphonic goal we appeal to the Scandinavian theory of linguistic polyphony, the latter will allow us to emphasize the different processes. polyphonic which act and interact from their linguistic construction to generate polyphony. The results of our analysis show that the conditional, the comparison and the modalization are the main polyphonic processes used by the author to tint his work with a pluri-interpretative character.</p> Dr. Hassani Rima Aida Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-20 2023-07-20 60 2 1000 1015 Family Functioning in Psychosis <p>This study examines the relationship between family functioning, functional psychoses, and the emergence of schizophrenia in individuals. The FAT test was used to diagnose the case and determine the family functioning of a schizophrenic patient, including boundaries, interactions, and alliances within the family system. The main objective of this research is to address the following question: Does family functioning play a role in the development of schizophrenia in individuals? Based on the study's findings, it can be concluded that family functioning does indeed contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia, with a significant impact and influence on this relationship.</p> Ismahan Bekhouche, Moukhtar Bouteldja Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-20 2023-07-20 60 2 1016 1027 The psychological wellbeing of the old adults: comparative study between the residents and non-residents in the nursing house <p>This paper tackles the differences regarding the psychological wellbeing between the old adults residing in the nursing houses and those who reside with their families. In this context, the psychological wellbeing includes the psychological health and the absence of psychological troubles. In so doing, we relied on the descriptive method and used the Personal Wellbeing Index on a sample of 15 old adults who had been chosen on purpose from the nursing house in Ain el Assel (Taref) and 15 old adults living with their families. Our findings show that there are differences regarding the psychological wellbeing between the old adults residing in the nursing houses and those residing with their families.</p> DJEFFAL Meriem,BOUDIA Leila Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-26 2023-07-26 60 2 1028 1035 Al-Badiaa from verbal embellishment to persuasiveness- Al-Bashir Al ibrahimi as a model - <p>In ancient Arabic rhetoric, badiaa relates to the external formulation of discourse, and has nothing to do with its Persuasive methods, and with the advent of the new rhetoric, this view changed and became known as basic pragmatic functions within the text, In order to know these functions, in this research we will study some of the articles of Al-Bashir Al-Ibrahimi in order to reach what the modern Argumentation</p> <p>theory discovered in the fact that Al-Badiaa is an effective argumentative tool that cannot be confined to a narrow corner, and we chose Al-Ibrahimi’s articles because he lived in the time of colonialism, which he spent his life calling for to fight it, so was the purpose of Al-Badiaa has only verbal embellishment, or does he have persuasive reasons?</p> Dr.zoubirBouzaghou Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-26 2023-07-26 60 2 1036 1046 The Role of Professional Ethics in Enhancing the Application of the Algerian Financial Accounting System Principles - A Study of a Sample of Professionals and Academics in Constantine City <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study aims to examine the role of professional ethics in enhancing the application of the principles of the Algerian financial accounting system, which allows for the production of accounting information that reflects the true performance and financial position of an economic institution. To address this issue, it was necessary to study the correlation and impact relationship between the variables of professional ethics and the dimensions of the financial accounting system principles. To enhance this understanding, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to the study sample, which consisted of 301 individuals. Using a descriptive-analytical approach, the study yielded several key results, including the significant role of professional ethics in enhancing the application of the financial accounting system principles. Furthermore, the analysis of the study sample's responses revealed that accountants exhibit respect for most laws and regulations that require compliance with professional ethical standards.</p> Filali Hamza, Fennour Houda, Basta Saber. Chebarka mehdi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-28 2023-07-28 60 2 1047 1071 Aesthetics of the formation The Poetic Image at the Lakhder Fellous: An Applied study <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>The poetic image is considered a means of artistic expression, and something constant in all poems and trends, through which meanings are represented in a new and innovative way, and it is mainly related to the imagination, which is the natural entrance to it; Therefore, the poetic image is the poet's means to show his imaginary faculty, and to formulate his poetic and poetic experiences, to indicate in a constructive dialogue with his worker to direct me, not to convey it in his completed images; Rather, it is to reformulate it according to his inner world.</p> <p>&nbsp;From this given, I will study the patterns of the poetic image of the green poet Floss through his collection (I love you .. not a final confession), indicating its types and how it was formulated, and how it contributed to the formation of his poetic and poetic experiences.?</p> Ahmed Bessaoud Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 60 2 1072 1089 Applications of the SPSS statistical analysis program in the field of research and scientific studies <p>This article aims to clarify some of the statistical analyzes provided by the SPSS program in the field of research and scientific studies.</p> <p>We try to identify the stages of descriptive statistics applications, as well as deductive statistics applications for testing differences between arithmetic means through statistics (parametric and no parametric) using SPSS, starting with the process of collecting, analysis, presentation and reading of data according to the nature of the research, leading to accurate and correct results.</p> Ben Moufki Zine, Kerroum Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 60 2 1090 1109 The percentage of the explosive force contribution of young players of football (u16) in the skill of shoot <p>The objective of this study is to determine the percentage of the explosive force contribution of young players of football in the skill of shoot,the researchers used the descriptive method in its associative and analytical methods.However, the research's sample included the amateur sports club Amal Hashimiya (16) players selected from Total of (21) teams which were active at this level. The researchers used both of the explosive force and the power of shoot test. In addition to the statistical package to analyze the results of the study.</p> Recham Djamel Eddine,Dahmani Djamel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 60 2 1110 1118 Practicing sports activities to strengthen family relations in society <p>This article aims to highlight the contribution of sports activities to strengthening family ties in society, new studies indicate that doing any type of exercise such as walking, swimming or cycling, this allows people to avoid a lot of trouble inside the house, because of many daily tasks, financial burdens and psychological pressures, married people feel monotonous and bored, Sometimes it negatively affects some relationships, therefore experts in family relations advise to get rid of this routine by doing sports, which has been shown to be effective in adding happiness to married life and other benefits, in this article the researchers tried to analyze the main factors and reasons for the appearance of family problems, as well as highlighting the contributions of the practice of sports activities in strengthening the family relations in society, by providing some statistics provided by specialists .</p> Kerroum Bachir, Ghidi Abdelkader Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 60 2 1119 1125 Difficulties in achieving the quality of the teaching performance of university professors from their point of view (Field study at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of M'sila) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The current study aimed to know the difficulties facing university professors in achieving the quality of teaching performance from their point of view, by answering the following question: What are the difficulties that hinder the achievement of quality of teaching performance among university professors?<br>This study required the use of the descriptive analytical approach, and to achieve the goal, the study sought the opinions of a sample of (20) university professors in the departments of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences at M'sila University, who were chosen in a cross-section, during the first semester 2021/2022, and the half-interview was used as a tool for data collection , And conducting dialogues with them in three main axes: the first axis: about the university professor’s perception of the concept of quality of teaching performance, the second axis: about the difficulties that hinder the achievement of the quality of the teaching professor’s performance, and the third axis: it was about ways, and suggestions that enable Bl those difficulties, and the achievement of quality in teaching performance from the perspective of &nbsp;university professors.</p> Dr. Rabah Heraiz Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 60 2 1126 1147 Towards an innocent role in the use of language. . . A reading of the linguistic juncture of Jurgen Habermaz and Axel Honeth. <p><strong>Linguistic research has made a great leap when it passes old idealictic which was only concerned in studying the origin of language and its roots. This was achieved after it realises that studying language exceeds the boundaries of its origin to establishing an approach of understanding. And&nbsp; radically moving towards a philosophy of language, thus exceeding epistemology such as hydgers' antoligism and Higels' idealism. Therefore, linguistic research has created an alternative to speech with a linguistic view and a communicative rationalism which seeks to recognizing the other</strong><strong>.</strong></p> oualid lahoua Hachemi Kechiche Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-02 2023-08-02 60 2 1148 1157 Questioning the problematic of the critical term The term poetic image is a model <p>The research addresses the problematic of the Arabic critical term and its relation to its Western counterpart, and then reveals the trend of the term poetic image that has symbolic/Western origins, works to adapt it within Arabic terminology, and monitors alternative terms for it such as the term artistic image, as the latter led to a critical debate.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;The research relied on the descriptive approach based on the mechanisms of analysis and induction. The research also raised several problems, including: Is the crisis that the Arab critical term went through during its contact with the other/the West real or fabricated? Is the term poetic image the only term that can contain the term image artistic?.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> sata nedjim Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-02 2023-08-02 60 2 1158 1172 Investigating the behavior of arsenic during silicide formation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Rutherford Backscatter Spectrometry (RBS) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) in interconnects of new integrated circuit technologies. <p>This paper presents a study on Arsenic behavior during high-temperature silicide production, focusing on sub-microcrystalline titanium. The investigation involved oriented monocrystalline silicon discs implanted with Arsenic through an oxide layer. The results showed strong migration of Arsenic in the titanium silicide, impacting formation kinetics. The study identified various mechanisms contributing to dopant redistribution, such as diffusion in Si, TiSi2, and Ti, evaporation from the titanium surface, and movement of dopants due to interface shifting. The solubility of Arsenic in different phases and segregating coefficients play essential roles in driving these redistribution processes. The findings have significant implications for optimizing CMOS scaling and miniaturization, guiding the development of self-aligned silicide structures to enhance CMOS device performance and support continued socio-economic progress through advanced integrated circuit technologies</p> Mohamed Salah Benlatrech, Omari Tahar, Billel Smaani, Ouafa Boukhemis Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-03 2023-08-03 60 2 1173 1185 Question of Jealousy and the Horizon of Achieving Coexistence - Current Status and Challenges <p>The concept of coexistence or living together is a result of abstract intellectual orientations seeking realistic achievement within ethics that converge and harmonize different perspectives, opinions, and diverse values amid various and conflicting systems in many cases among culturally diverse societies. This underscores the importance of embracing the principle of coexistence with others by first recognizing the self, leading to the realization of mutual respect between the self and others within what is known as the diversity of cultural identities and shared frameworks among individuals or different human groups, regardless of their races, genders, and religions. This calls for coexistence to be achieved through a degree of connection and collaboration despite the challenges and stakes present in today's world.</p> Lakli Hanane Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 60 2 1186 1199 Radio advertising and rhetorical strategies –a semiotic approach <p>This research paper aims to investigate radio advertising as one of the most important ideological discourses that carries an intellectual and cultural impetus for the society addressed to it, as well as reflects its cultural identity. The success of the advertising flash. Since the radio advertising discourse is a fabric of linguistic and non-linguistic signs, the radio advertising makers invoke multiple persuasive strategies in their speeches. From this point of view, we pose the following problem: What are the strategies of persuasion? And what is the extent of their impact on the recipient (the listener).</p> Kadranihakima, Hassani Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-07 2023-08-07 60 2 1200 1213 The "Nietzschean" human-building project <p>Man is a mass of concepts with political, economic, social, religious, psychological, and mental dimensions. We can say that he is a reflection of his environment. However, Nietzsche's man is an individualist, who only represents himself and no one else. He has absolute freedom and a powerful will in self-realization and the maker of his destiny. His description is strength based on the struggle of existence and survival of the strongest, his principle is I feel that I exist, the value of his existence in achieving the act of force in life, and strong will is the main engine in the action of his human being, he is that human who achieves the meaning of his existence in word and deed to add value, he is the center of the universe in art High.</p> Krifif boulanouar, Kadranihakima Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-07 2023-08-07 60 2 1228 1233 Foreign language concept, challenges and opportunities in the context of dialogue and integration <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Foreign language learning has become a necesity in various domains nowadays. This concept itself poses real challenges&nbsp; in the run-up to cultural diversity, dialogue and integration.</p> Dr. Karima Bouhalouan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-12 2023-08-12 60 2 1234 1245 The Effectiveness of Innovative Islamic Financial Products in Enhancing the Profitability of Islamic Banks : A Case Study of Al Salam Bank Algeria <p>This study aims to illustrate the extent to which innovative Islamic financial products can enhance the profitability of Islamic banks. This is achieved by explaining the concept of Islamic financial innovation and its relationship to the profitability of Islamic banks. To examine the role of financial innovation in improving the profitability of Islamic banks, the case study of Salam Bank Algeria was selected as a sample of Islamic banks operating in Algeria that have introduced innovative financial instruments to the market.</p> Dr. Briki Abla, Dr. Kirouani Lyes Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 60 2 1254 1271 Orientalist Artworks to Obliterate the Algerian National Identity During the French occupation <p>The French occupation of Algeria, with its varied landscapes of plains, plateaus, and deserts, made it appealing to Orientalist artists to travel there. Among the most prominent were the (French artist Eugène Delacroix, Étienne Dinet, and Pablo Picasso). They were chosen or commissioned to depict natural subjects and prevalent social aspects within Algerian society to distort and obliterate its national identity which is regarded as a fertile ground for artistic activity, and service to French colonialism.</p> Bensenouci kamel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 60 2 1272 1284 The relationship between the judiciary and the press- Analytical study of media law 12/05 <p>This study aims to clarify the various aspects of the relationship between the press and the judiciary in Algeria through the media law 12/05, based on an analysis of its articles.</p> <p>The study concluded that the press was linked to the judiciary sector&nbsp; through the Penal Judiciary, administrative and constitutional Judiciary</p> Hafssa Kobibi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 60 2 1285 1292 Humanising Imprisonment Conditions and Their Reflections on the Reality of Prisons in Algeria <p>The rights of prisoners constitute one of the most critical issues that have garnered substantial attention from the international community, especially in light of the evolution of punitive ideologies and contemporary penal policies. This has led to the formulation of numerous conventions and international agreements that have recognised and acknowledged the entitlement of prisoners to a variety of rights. These agreements have significantly impacted the conditions experienced by prisoners in Algerian prisons. Consequently, this study aims to shed light on the topic of humanizing imprisonment conditions and upholding prisoners' human dignity. This is considered not only a fundamental right but also a guiding principle that underpins modern penal policies. The study further explores the implications of these principles for the current state of prisons in Algeria</p> Dr. Mehdaoui Mohammed Salah, Dr. Nedjet Zaazoua Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 60 2 1293 1315 The Pre-Islamic Poem in the View of German Orientalism <p>There is no doubt that the studies of the German orientalists of the pre-Islamic poem worked on some critical Arab studies on the structure of pre-Islamic poetry on an important issue based on the problem of the composition of poems; What is meant by this was whether the themes of the single poem were consistent and interrelated with each other with a coherent objective unity, or were they disjointed and independent of each other? From here, some German orientalists saw in their studies of pre-Islamic poetry that the Arabic poem lacks an internal structure, and according to this proposition we wanted to clarify the positions of each Orientalists from them, as we can see its validity from its error after the statement of the psychological reference represented in the curricula of their studies of Arab heritage in general and of literature in particular, as we discern the position of Arab criticism regarding their studies of the substantive unity in the pre-Islamic poem</p> Oussama mehemli Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 60 2 456 469 The Think Tanks as new channels of influence under Globalization: a definitional Analysis <p>In a world of interdependent interests, actors and agendas, both&nbsp; internally and externally, the power of ideas that shapes the line of action among states and individuals, and more importantly, major powers with longterm strategies worldwide, is still debated as a new and significant factor for global peaceful interaction, added to other tools of power and influence under our era of globalization. Accordingly, an extensive analysis of such actors at the level of structure and role is widely required in the field of security, strategy and international relations, especially with regard to the policy making process of states and even international organizations in several fields of action</p> Benammar Imam, Atamna Rachid Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-22 2023-08-22 60 2 1316 1323 The Crossing of Disciplines in the Algerian Secondary Cycle French Exam Context <p>The development of a cross-disciplinary and multidisciplinary communicative competence in learners, where interdisciplinary knowledge and skills intersect, is one of the stated objectives of the pedagogical project of the Algerian school concerning language teaching and learning, similar to the teaching of French as a Foreign Language (henceforth FFL). Hence, our interest in this study is to inquire: how is this intersection of disciplines integrated into the end-of-secondary-cycle exams, and how could this didactic-pedagogical choice impact the quality of language teaching and learning by establishing connections with various disciplines through the diverse topics addressed in the Baccalaureate examination? Thus, in order to provide some elements of an answer to this question, we undertook this study based on an evaluation framework designed after a meticulous analysis of twenty-three benchmark assessments. As a result of this study, the conclusions point to the fact that several disciplines are taken into consideration to encourage high school students to draw upon various resources to solve the encountered problem situations.</p> Abdelmalek DJEDIAI, Mounir MILOUDI Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-22 2023-08-22 60 2 1324 1341 The Role of Electronic Games in the Emergence of Aggressive Behavior among adolescent students-A Field Study in Some Secondary Education Institutions in the Provinces of Tizi Ouzou and Boumerdes - <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Play is considered a natural inclination and an important activity that individuals engage in to satisfy their basic needs, whether physical, psychological, mental, or social. It accompanies individuals in various stages of their development and takes on different forms according to their age. Electronic games are among the most significant acquisitions of the information and communication technology revolution, which have gained wide acceptance and popularity among both children and adults. This has sparked extensive debate and varying opinions among researchers about the emergence of certain negative effects as a result of excessive use of electronic games, such as addiction to their use and the appearance of aggressiveness in thinking, emotions, and behavior.</p> A. Haroun Soumicha, A. Aici Aziza Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-22 2023-08-22 60 2 1342 1364 The phenomenon of child paramedics in Algeria between reality and possible solutions <p>In recent years, reality indicates an exacerbation of the phenomenon of child medics in Algeria, due to the rapid development that deeply affected the Algerian family, especially the Algerian woman.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study focuses on the reality of the paramedic child in Algerian society, defining the concept of the latter and the view of the Islamic religion towards the paramedic child, as well as clarifying the methods of protection granted by the Algerian state to this category of children, in an attempt to identify possible solutions to this phenomenon.</p> Samira Amarouche Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-22 2023-08-22 60 2 1365 1374 The relationship of irrational thoughts and future anxiety with attitudes towards illegal immigration among university students. A field study at Mouloud Mamari University - Tamda - Tizi Ouzou state <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The current study aimed to find out the relationship of irrational thoughts and future anxiety with attitudes towards illegal immigration among university students. The study concluded that there is a statistically significant correlation between irrational thoughts, future anxiety, and attitudes towards illegal immigration among university students.</p> Dr. Malika Aliouane , Dr. Benmoumen Asma Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 60 2 1375 1391 School Learning: From the Question of Control to the Question of Transformation <p>The aims of school learning extend beyond its confines, as long as learning strives to achieve a fundamental goal, which is enabling the learner to apply their acquired knowledge in new contexts and beyond the limited school framework. This perspective is rooted in the constructivist, social, and interactive epistemological model, which serves as a reference for the competency-based approach as an educational strategy in school learning. To frame our topic, we have chosen to address the following question: What do students do with what they have learned in school? This question signifies the transition from asking whether what has been learned is applicable to whether it is actually being applied. It also delves into the significance of achieving practical competence, signifying the shift from a didactic situation to a non-didactic one, passing through a non-didactic situation</p> DR. Bouzidi Smail Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 60 2 1392 1403 Marital Conflicts in the Algerian Family Through the Book " Al-Durar Al-Maknūnah fī Nawāzil Māzūnah " <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study aims to shed light on the issue of marital disputes and conflicts within Algerian families, by highlighting the reasons behind them, including instances where spouses or one of them face coercion, deception, violence, poor treatment, or disagreements over financial matters. The study also examines the resulting reactions from the spouses themselves, as well as the family and societal environment. Additionally, it explores the role of religious scholars (fuqaha) and their contribution in resolving such conflicts.</p> Younes Lakhdar Bennaceur Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 60 2 1404 1417 Psychological Pain in Adolescents Victims of Incest (Clinical Study) <p>This study aims to know the nature of the psychological pain that the adolescent tells of the victim of incest, which is considered one of the topics that is less discussed in Arab and Islamic research, and incest also from traumatic events that leave psychological effects including victim, family and society as a whole. The study used the clinical method by means of the clinical interview and the test of understanding the subject on a purposful sample consisting of three adolescents in the psychological clinic Noor al-Amal in Souk Ahras city and Ibn Rushd Hospital in Annaba. The study showed that these victims tell painful psychological feelings, Of fears and suffering from a sense of responsibility and self-blame.</p> Hafsi Souad , Ashouri Sonia , Ben Ismail Rahima Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 60 2 1418 1438 The conceptual rooting of cultural real estate in the light of international conventions and Algerian legislation <p>Every nation possesses a cultural heritage that reflects its civilization and history. Cultural properties hold significant importance for each people as a testament to their cultural legacy, representing their identity and the continuity of their past throughout various eras. This is commonly known as cultural heritage, encompassing both tangible aspects like artifacts, buildings, religious and historical sites, as well as intangible elements like customs, traditions, sciences, arts, and more, passed down from one generation to another. Numerous international conventions and comparative legislations have diligently worked towards safeguarding cultural heritage. Similarly, Algerian legislation, through Law No. 98/04 dated 15/06/1998, concerning the protection of cultural heritage, defines the various types of cultural properties. Among these, immovable cultural properties hold particular significance due to their unique legal ownership system, non-transferability, and their historical significance, cultural value, and specialized legal protection.</p> Dr. Larbes Samra Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 60 2 1439 1450 The Role of Administrators' Competence in Managing Financial Crises in Professional Sports Clubs: A Field Study of Some Algerian Professional Football Clubs (Mobilis First and Second Professional Leagues) <p>Professional football clubs in Algeria are facing various and diverse sports crises, especially financial ones, despite their transition to professionalism and the substantial support they receive, whether from the government or the private sector. In light of this, clubs require a comprehensive and consistent response in dealing with crises, which may not be achieved without capable managerial leadership that possesses sufficient knowledge and expertise in sports administration and management. Such leadership often resides in the club administrators.</p> Dr. Zinai Billal, Dr. Herti Sidahmed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 60 2 1451 1478 Regulations of Algerian Law for the Construction and Development of Protected Areas within the Constraints of Urban Expansion <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The significant interest in designated protected regions and areas, as stipulated in the Real Estate Direction Law and the Development and Planning Law, is due to various considerations such as historical, cultural, scientific, archaeological, and touristic reasons, as well as for the preservation of animals, plants, agricultural lands, and their protection. This is accomplished through specific legislative provisions that reinforce the general regulations of development and planning, aiming to control and restrict the boundaries of development contracts, licenses, and certificates. The level of protection has reached the point of an outright ban on construction over these areas, given the roles played by each protected zone. Consequently, disputes arise regarding these regions, largely centered around unauthorized construction and the misappropriation of their designated purposes by their users</p> Wafa Azeddine Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 60 2 1479 1493 The Brain and Developing the Ability for Learning, Linguistic Thinking, and Creativity - Towards Enhancing the Effectiveness of the Teaching and Learning Processes <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The traditional classroom constrains our thinking strategies and limits our alternative responses. A teacher who insists on using a single teaching method and providing only one correct answer is, in fact, ignorant of the reasons that have preserved the renewal and evolution of the human species. Furthermore, he needs more academic ambition and to be made aware of the adaptive law within the human brain, where understanding the processes of learning and teaching requires knowledge of the brain's functions and operations. Simultaneously, he is trapped in thinking processes that rely on repetition and one specialization.</p> Fatima Zohra Fechar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-28 2023-08-28 60 2 1494 1509 The Connotations and Political Dimensions in the Selection of the Head of State - The Pledge of Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq as a Model <p>This research falls within the realm of political jurisprudence, focusing on the significant connotations and political dimensions derived from the selection of Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq as a model for the first head of state after the passing of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. It also compares this with contemporary political thought in the field of establishing political legitimacy for rulers and their performance of authority acquired through free popular will.</p> Dr. Ali Ghanem, Dr. Baya Benachour, Pr. Saliha Benachour Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-28 2023-08-28 60 2 1510 1527 Exploring the Psychometric Properties of the Algerian Version of Grober & Buschk Test <p>Accurate psychological assessment and diagnosis rely on several facilitating factors, including the availability of tools that assist clinical psychologists, particularly in establishing accurate diagnoses for the disorders they encounter. Consequently, these tools help in finding appropriate solutions and ultimately achieving comfort and mental health for the individual in question. One important tool among these is psychological testing. In our study, we have constructed and standardized the Grober et Buschke test for the Algerian community, with the aim of examining its psychometric properties, such as validity and reliability, as well as its ability to measure the intended constructs. Thus, providing a tool that aids physicians and psychological professionals in facilitating the diagnostic process, especially in memory-related disorders. It is important to adapt tests to the Arab environment to enable professionals to use them with ease. Furthermore, it is necessary to apply the adapted test to a sample of patients to accurately demonstrate its significance.</p> Dr. Hind Ghedhaifi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-02 2023-09-02 60 2 1528 1546 Estimating the anxiety of the female delinquent adolescent using Hamilton scale (case study) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study aims at knowing the degree of anxiety of the female delinquent adolescent and how its effect manifests in her life. In so doing, we relied on the clinical method because it is the most suitable for our study. Moreover, we used the case study through the application of Hamilton scale on a sample chosen on purpose. Findings show that:</p> <p>- The female delinquent adolescent generally suffers anxiety.</p> <p>- The psychological anxiety is the most dominating on the female delinquent adolescent.</p> <p>- The psychosomatic anxiety is high for the female delinquent adolescent</p> Fatima Zohra Hadj Kellouf, Hazem Hamani Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-02 2023-09-02 60 2 1547 1559 The reality and prospects for the contribution of Halal Tourism in promoting the application of the Islamic economy <p>This study aims to identify the reality of halal tourism and its contribution to enhancing the application of the Islamic economy, considering it as one of its essential sectors. The study highlighted the remarkable growth of halal tourism as a new market that attracts a large number of tourists committed to achieving a balance between their religious and spiritual principles and their desire for entertainment and exploring global destinations that meet a set of conditions, most notably halal food, prayer facilities, and other Muslim tourist requirements. The study concluded several findings, the most significant of which is the revival of the halal tourism market after a significant decline due to the COVID-19 pandemic, contributing to a 6% growth in the Islamic economy for the year 2022.</p> Bezaze Halima, Kanza Teniou Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-02 2023-09-02 60 2 1560 1577 Swearing of God and the rule of non-fulfillment in the Maliki Madhab <p>In these recent years, people have begun to swear by God a lot, both for great things and also for things that are not important, and we also notice that some merchants swear and lie in order to promote their merchandise and merchandise.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Therefore, this study was in order to clarify the provisions of the oath by God, as well as the provisions in the event that the one who swears by God did not fulfill his promise</p> Mohammed Mehdi Lakhdar Bennaceur, Yacine Lakhdar Bennaceur Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-02 2023-09-02 60 2 1578 1591 The role of selective attention in oral language acquisition in a sample of hearing-impaired children subject to cochlear implants <p>&nbsp;Oral language is one of the biggest challenges for hearing-impaired children undergoing cochlear implants, as the goal of cochlear implantation is to enable this group to acquire oral language, and mature linguistically and cognitively to catch up with the rest of their natural peers. Since language acquisition is the result of a set of factors, including different cognitive processes, including selective attention, this is what made us highlight in this paper the role of selective attention in oral language acquisition among a sample of hearing-impaired children undergoing cochlear implants, on a sample of 05 cases of hearing-impaired primary school students undergoing cochlear implants in two primary schools in the municipality of Hadjout, Tipaza Governorate, Algeria Using two data collection tools such as the oral language test ELO Abdul Hamid Khomsi and the Stroop Selective Attention Test. This study showed that Selective attention disorder leads to difficulties in oral language. The study concluded to expand the sample to a larger number, and to the necessity of conducting a comprehensive routine psychological and orthophonical examination from time to time for children with cochlear implants in schools, and even for the rest of the integrated children who suffer from disabilities and other disorders</p> Dr. Amine Djenane, Dr. Dalila Adda, Pr. Sid ahmed Bara Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-03 2023-09-03 60 2 1592 1605 Television and its effect on the upbringing of children <p>I've come up with a set of studies that addressed the impact of television on children's upbringing that Child more and faster influenced by television compared to its impact on adults, so we find the children gathered in front of him, leaving their seats when viewing an interesting article and sitting on the ground nearby, attuned incidence Displays characters impersonation, imitators of many transactions that they see, many studies in different countries of the world that the average child spends aged six to sixteen years before the small screen as 12-24 hours per week</p> Bensaada Hanane Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-03 2023-09-03 60 2 1606 1623 THE ASYMMETRIC IMPACT OF GREEN FINANCE ON THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DURING THE PERIOD (2014Q1-2022Q4): AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE CASE OF BANGLADESH <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the face of urgent environmental challenges and the increasing need for sustainable development, green financing has emerged as a potential solution to address both environmental and economic concerns. This empirical study focuses on examining the asymmetric impact of green financing on the economic dimension of sustainable development in Bangladesh over the period from the first quarter of 2014 to the fourth quarter of, using Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) models and Wald test. The hypothesis of nonlinearity in the impact of green financing on the economic dimension of sustainable development in both the short and long terms was verified. Short-term estimation results indicate that growth rates respond only to positive values of green financing, where an increase in the latter leads to short-term growth. Conversely, an increase in green financing also positively affects long-term growth rates with an estimated elasticity of 0.47%. However, negative values in green financing have a negative impact on economic growth rates in Bangladesh in the long term</p> Hichem Talhi, Bouchentouf Moulay Mostapha Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-03 2023-09-03 60 2 1624 1638 The orthophonic treatment of executive functions in patients with Parkinsonism symptoms <p>This study aims to reveal the methods of modern artefactual support of executive functions in patients with Parkinsonism symptoms, in the sense that most of the difficulties recorded in patients with Parkinsonism symptoms can be understood from the perspective of disorders of executive functions.&nbsp; Which is a degenerative neurological disease that affects many executive functions such as the function of the palm, planning and mental flexibility, which makes them suffer from difficulty in achieving these functions.&nbsp; However, appropriate support and rehabilitation helps them improve daily life, self-development, independence and social interaction.&nbsp; This can only be achieved by developing modern programs and methods that are based on solid theoretical foundations.</p> Reddaf Khaoula, Mahrez Abla Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-03 2023-09-03 60 2 1639 1651 The importance of applying Islamic financial engineering products in achieving stability of the global financial system, with reference to the financial crisis of 2008 <p>The global financial crisis with its imbalances on the international financial system gives confirmation that the financial products used are very risky and complex because of its opposition to moral values. This has financial specialists to look for other safer financial products to avoid such a crisis in the nearest future. the nearest future. From this came the present study, which focuses on the aspects of Islamic financial engineering, as well as the objectives and legitimate controls, highlighting the most important products that will help, ensure the stability of the international financial system</p> Sotehi Djaber , Zeghbid Nassim Lotfi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-03 2023-09-03 60 2 1652 1668 Reality and memories Novel Death in Oran for El Habib Essayeh as a sample <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This novel woven its events from all that is sad and heartbreaking in an escalating dramatic way that revealed a biography of the city of Oran and of the characters who played different roles, and it stood on many details in the lives of simple and ordinary people. presented to the recipient? What are the patterns of presenting the place and how is it linked to the events in its formation and intertwining with the rest of the components? The importance of this research is also highlighted in that it presents a reading of a contemporary novel that employed the space of the city and made it an essential component of it, while it was absent in many creative works or appeared faint and vague in many cases.</p> Toumi Hicham Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-03 2023-09-03 60 2 1669 1684 Necessity is a starting point for producing discourse <p>The concept of presupposition has raised a wide debate among philosophers, grammarians, and linguistics. It differed in determining its nature between three basic positions; the first position sees that the presupposition is a semantic phenomenon, because it is considered part of the meaning’s sentence. While the second position imagines that the presupposition is pragmatic phenomenon that is not related to the semantics of the sentence, but rather is related to the meaning of the utterance. The third position believes that the presupposition is merely a deductive process that helps us in interpreting the utterances.</p> Mahfoudi Salima Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-03 2023-09-03 60 2 1685 1696 Marital violence against the wife from the perspective of Islamic law <p>This paper seeks to illustrate the phenomenon of marital violence against the wife and how the law deals with this issue by revealing the meaning of this phenomenon in the sharia, highlighting its most important manifestations and forms, distinguishing it from disciplinary cases, and identifying the most important and prominent solutions necessary and the effective methods and treatments with which Islamic law dealt with this issue.The research concluded that Islam has always endeavored to combat the separation between spouses by offering various remedial solutions to all negative phenomena in the marriage relationship, including various remedial solutions to the phenomenon of marital violence against the wife, in order to preserve the family and its entity.</p> Boukhalfi Amel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-03 2023-09-03 60 2 1697 1707 FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTAINABLE LOGISTICS DEVELOPMENT IN THANH HOA PROVINCE, VIETNAM <p>In the context of globalization and the Fourth Industrial Revolution, logistics is an important factor in performing the strategy of sustainable development of the Northern Centre in the current and future. Research has shown a mechanism of positive relation of logistics on sustainable development of the Northern Centre through a positive impact on three components: (i) stable economic growth; (ii) Ensuring social equity and (iii) Ensuring a living environment.</p> Nguyen Thi Nhung Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 60 2 1708 1717 ENHANCING THE QUALITY OF HIGH-QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCE TRAINING: A STUDY IN THE MARKETING SECTOR IN VIETNAM <p>In recent years, with a high economic growth rate, Vietnam has surpassed the threshold of poor and underdeveloped countries, achieving a remarkable accomplishment. The significant role of human resources cannot be denied in contributing to this success. Numerous studies have indicated that the "quality of human resources" is a decisive factor in the success or failure of businesses and the overall economy. The strong development of international economic integration has posed new demands on high-tech human resources in general, and particularly in the field of Marketing. However, the current workforce in the Marketing sector is both deficient in quantity and lacking in quality.</p> Le Ngoc Dung, Tran Tuan Anh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 60 2 1718 1724 SERVICE MARKETING FOR ENHANCING EDUCATIONAL QUALITY AT UNIVERSITIES: A STUDY IN VIETNAM <p>Service marketing, widely applied in business, is increasingly being adopted in the field of education, particularly in higher education. This is essential in the context of commercializing higher education and global education competition. This study delves into understanding the application of service marketing in education at universities. The research results reveal that the university has utilized all service marketing tools in its educational service marketing activities, including product, pricing, place/distribution, promotion, people, physical evidence, and process, to enhance enrollment and elevate the university's brand in the context of autonomous enrollment and comprehensive quality enhancement and branding efforts. Additionally, the study identifies the strengths and limitations in the university's educational service marketing activities.</p> Nguyen Van Dung Bui Phuong Nhung Chu Lam Son Nguyen Van Hach Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 60 2 1725 1732 INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: A STUDY IN VIETNAM <p>As economies of various countries are being constructed on open economic platforms, the participation of multiple economic components, including foreign enterprises or distributors engaging in domestic markets, can lead to the influence of foreign markets on the domestic market. The impact of foreign enterprises, proportional to the share of foreign businesses in the general economy and trade activities, will yield diverse effects on an economy, resulting in various transformations. Hence, for Vietnam, how has international trade influenced the nation and what international trade policies has Vietnam implemented?</p> Bui Ba Hieu, Tran Tuan Anh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 60 2 1733 1749 Depression among adolescent girls attending secondary school (A Comparative Study between Female Adolescent Residing in Campus and Commuter Students) <p>The current study aimed to identify the differences in the degree of depression among adolescent girls residing within the secondary campus and commuter students. The comparative descriptive approach was used, where the "Beck" depression scale was applied to (100) adolescents who were randomly selected. The results found that there were statistically significant differences between adolescent girls residing within the secondary campus and others residing outside the secondary campus inasmuch as the degree of depression is concerned.</p> Dr. Mokadem Safia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 60 2 1750 1764 Phraselogical Diversity in Press Headlines: Aesthetic of Journalistic Writing <p>This article examines the phraselogical diversity present in press headlines. The main objective is to analyze how fixed expressions from various language registers are used in constructing journalistic headlines and what the communicative functions of this practice are. The study highlights how the mixture of fixed expressions from domains such as religious, economic, legal, scientific, and others is employed to create appealing and captivating headlines. Furthermore, the article explores how the choice of fixed expressions and their incorporation into headlines achieves stylistic, persuasive, and aesthetic objectives, while also reflecting the journalist's ideological stance</p> Dr. Amarni Asma Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 60 2 1765 1774 The cultural upbringing of the Arab child in light of the new changes <p>Building a child's cultural identity is considered the cornerstone of the</p> <p>development process for societies that seek well-being and progress for their children. It is a preparation for the future and an industry for it through the generations of tomorrow. This future depends on the upbringing process, the extent of care given to it, and the type of basic orientations it takes.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In light of an accelerated and comprehensive global digital trend, several challenges have emerged in the cultural upbringing of the Arab child, which required the formulation of regulating standards for the cultural content directed to children, which is what the study seeks by examining the challenges of building cultural identity, and then discussing the problems of Arab cultural discourse directed at children in The shadow of the digital wave</p> Bahoun Ali Said Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 60 2 1775 1784 Applications of the Linguistic Textbook to Modern Arabic Literary Discourse - An Analytical and Descriptive Study <p>We decided to select a specific blog for our research from Algerian literary heritage and conduct a modern study using the analytical approach. Through this, we aim to demonstrate the coherence and textual interconnection that characterize Algerian literature. This blog is represented by the texts of Mohamed Bashir El-Ibrahimi in his book "Al-Athar" (The Traces). We specifically chose this blog because it represents an Algerian heritage left to us by Mohamed Bashir El-Ibrahimi. Furthermore, it contains linguistic secrets and intellectual treasures, especially in the realm of language. The choice of textual analysis is based on its alignment with the study of literary texts. This study attempts to approach the texts in the light of textual linguistics, by revealing the mechanisms that have been applied to them and investigating the methods that contributed to their construction. We have reached a number of conclusions where the textual nature of Algerian literary texts is achieved through the interaction with other texts and their alignment with similar texts. The contextualization also played a significant role in establishing a solid entity for the construction of the blog. It has played an important role in achieving coherence and a strong interconnection within the text</p> Djelikhi Belkacem Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 60 2 1785 1799 QUALITY OF ROOM SERVICE AT NAM CUONG HOTEL IN HAI DUONG, VIETNAM <p>The article presents fundamental theories about the quality of room service in the hotel system and the factors influencing the quality of room service in the hotel system. It focuses on analyzing and providing evaluations of the current state of room service quality at Nam Cuong Hotel in Hai Duong. Consequently, it offers some recommendations to improve the quality of room service at Nam Cuong Hotel in Hai Duong. The research subjects are convenience standards, facility standards, hygiene standards, courteous and attentive standards, and safety standards. The research methods include the approach method, data collection, and comparative analysis method. The research results show that enhancing the quality of room service is of utmost importance and should be consistently maintained by the housekeeping department. Improving the quality of room service equates to improving the overall quality of hotel services.</p> Pham Van Hoang, Vu Thi Nhung Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 60 2 1800 1812 Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a potential new parameter independent of blood pressure at the time of measurement for arterial stiffness estimation <p>The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a robust predictor of cardiovascular events. An innovative, non-invasive approach to measuring arterial stiffness. The (CAVI) approach was developed to overcome the limitations of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), the gold standard indicator of arterial stiffness. The present study aims to propose a new algorithm to calculate the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) parameter from Pulse Wave Database (PWDB), that contains the pulse waves of 500 virtual subjects aged between 25 and 75 years, generated from cardiovascular characteristics. The results obtained are promising in terms of sensitivity (SEN) and accuracy (ACC). The sensitivity values are (95.18 %, 95.71%, 92.70 %, 90.33%, 89.28%, and 89.05%), and accuracy (ACC) are (91%, 89.4%, 86.4 %, 80.4%, 80 %, and 81.4%) for normal values of (CAVI, cf-PWV, a-PWV, PPamp, AIx, and ABI) respectively. We confirmed the value of (CAVI) as an indicator of cardiovascular disease by investing the relationship between (CAVI) and several parameters of arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV, r=0.66), arterial stiffness index (AIx, r=0.72), and aortic pulse wave velocity (a-PWV, r=0,96). Pulse pressure amplification showed a negative correlation (PPamp, r=-0.67). A moderate negative correlation was observed with ankle brachial index (ABI, r=-0.38). A weak dependence on different blood pressures at the time of measurement was confirmed, by the coefficients of determination r<sup>2 </sup>(systolic SBP, 0.08, diastolic DBP, 0.11, mean MBP, 0.10, and pulsed pressures PP, 0.16). The influence of age on arterial stiffness was found with a strong positive correlation between age and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, r=0.88).</p> Lilia Radjef, Tahar Omari , Karim Baiche Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-10 2023-09-10 60 2 1813 1828 "The Colonizability of African and Asian Societies from the Perspective of Malek Bennabi (Historical Insights)" <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study aims to attempt to formulate a conceptual understanding of the Islamic thinker Malek Bennabi's perspective on the colonial phenomenon, its dimensions in time and space, its consequences, and its effects on African and Asian countries and societies to this day, especially in the mental and behavioral aspects. It highlights the differences in the impact of colonialism between the African and Asian worlds and ways to overcome it. This is achieved by presenting some solutions and recommendations for addressing these consequences through a critical reading of some of Malek Bennabi's texts on the colonial phenomenon</p> Ahmed Jaafri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 60 2 1829 1841 A smart contract is an autonomous contract. <p>Technological advancement has led to a revolution in the world of communications, software, and computing, making technology tools perform human functions. One of the prominent aspects of this is known as smart contracts. These are contracts programmed automatically, encompassing all contract terms and having automatic execution. The role of the contracting parties is limited to their willingness and agreement to the contract, and thereafter, the contract itself, especially its execution, is performed automatically. Smart contracts are contracts based on computer programming, meaning they are formulated in the form of code within a computer program. This makes smart contracts self-contained, not requiring the legal formalities of traditional contracting.</p> Mahammedi Abdelkhalak, Khelkhal Maroua Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 60 2 1842 1855 The important role played by the media in reducing the phenomenon of violence in the health sector <p>This study aimed to reveal the important role played by the media in reducing the phenomenon of violence in the health sector, as the latter possesses various technological characteristics and capabilities that help it influence the cognitive, emotional and behavioral field of the individual.</p> <p>And since it is possible to exploit this great influence of the media on the behavior of the individual to confront violence in all its forms (physical and verbal), we will show how a media strategy can be built capable of developing social values that reject violence in the health milieu and call for dialogue and communication between members of society when dealing with each other, especially If there is integration and consistency between these means.</p> Dounia Khemnou, Aissa Moussa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 60 2 1856 1865 Muslim women's issues in the interests of the Algerian reform movement press 1925-1939 <p>In this scholarly contribution, we aim to shed light on various issues concerning Algerian Muslim women as addressed by the prominent newspapers of the reformist movement in Algeria during the period from 1925 to 1939. This timeframe coincides with the outbreak of World War II. The issue of Algerian women was notably raised by reformist figures through the various newspapers they published, driven by the circumstances of colonial domination under which Algerian women found themselves.</p> Dr. MIAD RACHID Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 60 2 1866 1883 The Psychological Effects of Patriarchy and Female Decentralization in Barbara Wood's Novel Virgins of Paradise <p>The present paper offers a critical feminist reading of the American novelist Barbara Wood's bestselling novel <em>Virgins of Paradise</em> (1993). It aims at analyzing Wood's novel in light of feminist criticism demonstrated particularly in works by Chandra Mohanty, Fatima Mernissi, and Daphne Grace and their theory of patriarchy. The analysis of this novel motivates one to infer how patriarchy is engineered by the male to subdue and decentralize the female by treating the latter as if she were a sexed being, or rather the inessential other. In order to achieve this objective, Wood sets up a narrative vision in terms of which she portrays how patriarchs marginalize and subordinate women. Hence, the very objective of the paper is to argue that the subordination of women is the leitmotif in Wood's <em>Virgin of Paradise</em>. In order to depict such a dominant motif, i.e., how women suffer from patriarchal segregation, Wood composes a feminist vision that brings into prominence the power-structured relationships designed by the male to create an imbalance of power that subordinates the female. This paper is also meant to explore the reasons behind the birth of patriarchy as well as motivating women to stand against patriarchal programming, which seems to have marginalized women since the beginning of human history. Such is the patriarchal agenda which has driven Wood to point out how patriarchy does not only minimize the status of women, but also instill into culture that they are not humans.</p> Farouq Rezq Bekhit Sayyid Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-19 2023-09-19 60 2 1884 1898 The Algerian University And The Entrepreneurial Orientation Challenge : Entrepreneurial Education And Entrepreneurial Accompaniment – The Experience Of Abd El Hamid Mehri University Constantine2- <p>The study aims to explore how Algerian universities enhance students' entrepreneurial orientation through entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial accompaniment. It focuses on the experience of Abd El Hamid Mehri Constantine University 2 and uses personal interviews with those in charge of entrepreneurial accompaniment structures. The study concludes that Algerian universities promote entrepreneurial orientation by offering entrepreneurial education using the entrepreneurship scale to foster an entrepreneurial culture and provide necessary human capital. Additionally, they provide entrepreneurial accompaniment through entrepreneurial houses, university business incubators, and innovation and technology support centers, aiming to equip students with essential knowledge and skills, support their projects, and increase project success rates and continuity</p> Allali Ibtissem, Tolba Sabrina Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-22 2023-09-22 60 2 1899 1915 Cognitive Psychological Study of Articulatory Therapy Programs in the Context of the Coronavirus Pandemic in Algeria Dysphasia Disorder as a Model <p>This cognitive psychological study aimed to investigate the role of articulatory therapy in treating dysphasia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study focused on a sample of four randomly selected dysphasic children. A case study methodology was applied, and the research utilized the following tools: selected items from the Orientation, Judgment, and Language Test (OJL) and a custom-designed parent questionnaire. The results were subjected to quantitative analysis, revealing a decrease in the effectiveness of therapy for this specific group during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Dr. Amel Amrani , Dr. Ameur Berrabah , Bouhadiba Hayatte, Nennouche Soria Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-22 2023-09-22 60 2 1916 1935 Attitudes of educational institutions principals towards the process of guidance and school counseling and its relationship to the performance of guidance counselors- A field study in some Jijel institutions- <p>This research paper aims to know the attitudes of principals of educational institutions towards the process of guidance and school counseling and its relationship to the performance of guidance counselors. The field study was conducted in some educational institutions in the wilaya of Jijel. The descriptive analytical approach was used for its suitability for the study, and a set of statistical methods such as arithmetic average and standard deviation were adopted using spss program.&nbsp; Two questionnaires were prepared for this study, and were distributed to the principals of educational institutions (middle and secondary). The actual study sample consisted of (60) principals. The first questionnaire is for the attitudes of principals of the educational institutions towards educational guidance, and the second questionnaire is devoted to evaluating the performance of the educational counselor</p> Dr. Hanan Bashta Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-22 2023-09-22 60 2 1936 1954 Job Training and Its Role in Enhancing the Productivity of Economic Institutions - A Case Study of Naftal Company (Algeria), "Médéa" Branch <p>Job training is considered a fundamental topic in our present era, occupying the top priorities of many advanced and developing countries alike. It is regarded as one of the key elements of development adopted by these institutions to build a capable workforce capable of facing current and future pressures and challenges</p> Abdelkader Mouzaoui, Imane Zouarqui Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 60 2 1955 1981 Preventive measures and legal mechanisms to combat hate speech according to Algerian Law No. 20/05 dated April 8, 2020 <p>Hate speech was, until recently, a phenomenon relatively foreign to Algerian society due to its unity. However, the Algerian legislator took the initiative to enact Law No. 20/05 dated April 8, 2020, specifically addressing the prevention and combat of discrimination and hate speech to protect society from this criminal behavior, especially in response to urgent calls to address it by establishing more precise and clear standards. This issue regained prominence at the beginning of 2020 due to the absence of strong legal provisions. Law 20/05 subsequently emerged, along with a framework for prevention and combat, as part of the 2020 Constitution, which included a range of preventive measures, legal mechanisms, and means of combating hate speech</p> Yahiaoui Laala Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 60 2 1982 1995 L’enseignement à distance du français langue étrangère postpandémie Covid19 à l’université de Blida 2 : retour d’expérience <p>Since the Covid19 pandemic, e-education has become essential in all Algerian universities who have switched from traditional face-to-face teaching to digital teaching via the Moodle educational platform. This article sheds light on the extension of this new mode of teaching at the University of Blida 2 after the return to presential mode since 2021. The aim of this study is to examine the opinions of teachers and students of French language foreign on the use of this method of teaching/learning after the end of the confinement linked to the Covid-19 pandemic. To do this, two written questionnaires were distributed to the public concerned. It appears that teachers are more favorable than students to the application of this new teaching/learning process. However, several obstacles are highlighted&nbsp;: difficulty of connecting and accessing to the Moodle platform, limited technological skills, reduced attention and motivation of students, interaction problems and disrupted teaching practices.</p> MAKHLOUF Leila Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-28 2023-09-28 60 2 1996 2005 LES NOUVELLES TECHNOLOGIES: QUEL APPORT DANS LE DEVELOPPEMENT DE LA COMPETENCE SCRIPTURALE? CAS DES APPRENANTS EN PREMIERE ANNEE SECONGAIRE <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The act of writing is an omnipresent activity in FFL classes and a complex challenge requiring knowledge and skills by calling on numerous knowledge and abilities. Learning through the practice of new technologies can offer new learning situations and the most innovative teaching approaches. Their integration, by both teachers and learners, therefore needs to be looked at closely and better analyzed.</p> <p>This study is part of the didactics of writing and information and communication technologies for teaching and is based on the results of an empirical experiment and a survey which aim to demonstrate whether teaching - learning incorporating new technologies can help learners in the first year of secondary school to develop their writing skills in FFL.</p> BENZOUAI Abderrazak Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-28 2023-09-28 60 2 2006 2019 Human capital at the heart of sustainable development in Algeria <p>The objective of our work is to demonstrate the contribution of human capital in sustainable development. Our study is spread over a period of 22 years, it aims to test the effect of several explanatory variables relating to the development of human capital on certain factors of sustainable development, namely: gross domestic saving, CO2 emission and a third factor measuring the percentage of the population in urban areas, which we have integrated into our empirical model; referring to multiple regression models on panel data.</p> Dr. DJEDDI Sarah , Dr. CHADLIA Amel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-28 2023-09-28 60 2 2020 2032 Self-esteem of obese women practicing physical activity and sport: a case study <p>It is undeniable that both physical and mental healths are two sides of the same coin, with each influencing the other. Psychological disorders, varying in their severity, can lead to physical illnesses, and vice versa, physical ailments can contribute to the development of mental health disorders. In this regard, we wanted to shed light on the modern-day disease known as obesity, which is accompanied by health problems that can be chronic and have a distorted impact on the individual's body, affecting their psychological well-being and personality. This can expose them to bullying and harassment.</p> Kouache Mounira Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-29 2023-09-29 60 2 2033 2043 Textual equivalence in translation between language and discourse <p>The aim of this paper is to define the concept of textual equivalence in translation from the perspective of both linguists and translators. The importance of this research topic lies in presenting a clear and accurate picture of this concept, which took other dimensions, especially with the development of linguistic theories, and the development of translation theories at the theoretical and applied levels, and thus trying to highlight the concept of textual equivalence in the translation process, in terms of the variation of the concept between the language and the discourse. And because its importance is reflected in being a measure of the success or failure of translation.</p> Farida Benfedda Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-29 2023-09-29 60 2 2044 2056 Evaluate the performance of physical education and sports teachers who are characterized by strong motivational skills and its impact on the behaviors of university students <p>The objective of this research is to carry out an evaluation study on teachers of physical education and sports in the institutes of eastern Algeria, and precisely will evaluate the performance of teachers of PSE who are characterized by strong motivational skills, by dividing the project into two chapters the first and theoretical the second and for the practical study.</p> <p>indeed, my subject is the subject of importance among researchers from several countries of the world and with us in Algeria the same thing, because education is a sensitive sector in society and which affects all human categories from primary level to university level.</p> Laidani Fouad, Benyoub Abdela Ali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-29 2023-09-29 60 2 2057 2069 The status of the horse in the algerian social psyche <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; My study came to answer a group of questions related to horses and algerian societal values, since the relationship is rooted in the history of between them, The horse became purebred thanks to the skilled rider, taking horsemanship٫ Where they were together as a cultural duo a moral and material heritage that distinguished us as arabs in general and algerians in particular from the rest of the various societies, and made many of them call for the necessity of benefiting from the experiences of arabs and algerians, such as the french general "dumas", who was amazed by the skills of our ancestors in dealing with horses, and was a true servant of his colonial ideology, which makes us certain. The study of horses in anthropology goes beyond mere fantasy or folklore, to being an important part of our algerian sociocultural heritage, Which led me to address the study in four important axes:</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; - Horses in our religious anthropology.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; - Horses in Arab culture.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; - Western view of algerian equestrianism.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; - Horses in algerian folk heritage.</p> Dr. Moussa Ismail Chamakhi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-29 2023-09-29 60 2 2070 2082 Steps for Applying Content Analysis Technique in Sociological Research <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The issue of choosing the appropriate technique for collecting data related to the chosen topic of study is one of the important challenges facing researchers in sociology during fieldwork. At this stage, the researcher must verify the validity or invalidity of hypotheses and choose the suitable method among others, depending on the nature of the topic, research objectives, and the type of methodology used (quantitative or qualitative). The researcher's ability to apply the chosen technique or a set of techniques in the research also plays a crucial role. Researchers might opt for a technique they believe will be easy to apply, sometimes disregarding the selection criteria</p> BOUALI Wassila, LAIDANI Messaoud Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-29 2023-09-29 60 2 2083 2099 Stress tests as a modern method to achieve financial stability - Studying the Omani experience during the Covid-19 crisis- <p>This study aimed to analyze the role of stress tests in measuring the ability of Omani banks to withstand the shocks resulting from the negative repercussions of the Corona epidemic, in accordance with the procedures and measures taken by the Central Bank of Oman during the crisis. In addition to the stress tests applied to the Omani banking sector according to different scenarios.</p> <p>The study concluded that the Omani banking system is still generally able to withstand shocks and high risks. The results indicate that local banks will absorb losses comfortably under moderate aggregate stress scenarios, as the capital adequacy ratio of local banks will decrease from its current level of 18.1% to 15.3%. Banks will also maintain the ratio of capital to risk-weighted assets at a level exceeding Basel requirements of 10.5%, according to severe stress scenarios. The results also showed that bank loans were of high quality, as the percentage of non-performing loans remained at low levels, as the reverse stress test showed that the current total non-performing loans at local banks may increase by at least 100% before the minimum ratio of capital to weighted assets is breached. risks with local banks. In addition, banks enjoy acceptable liquidity and the necessary flexibility to withstand potential shocks to local liquidity, as they have comfortable liquidity rates compared to international standards</p> Ali Djekrif, Fatma Hallouz, Samir Ammari, Faiza Chaieb Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-29 2023-09-29 60 2 2100 2116 The level of implementation of international professional standards by primary school teachers in Constantine. <p>This study aimed to identify the application of international professional standards by primary school teachers working in educational institutions in the state of Constantine, as well as to measure the differences between teachers in the extent of their performance of these standards according to demographic variables (age, gender). Academic qualification, work experience, degree). The study relied on the analytical descriptive approach, as (100) questionnaires were distributed to them.</p> <p>The study found a high level of implementation of international professional standards by primary school teachers working in the state of Constantine. It also showed that there were no statistically significant differences in the extent to which primary school teachers applied international professional standards in the state of Constantine, and a series of recommendations were reached that enable policy makers who hire teachers to benefit from this field.</p> KHAOULA ZIANI, AMINA MOUSLI, AHMED DAOUDI, RIAD ZERROUGUI Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-29 2023-09-29 60 2 2117 2131 The concept of rhetoric and the reality of miraculousness At Al-Khattabi. <p>The Arabic rhetoric has defined numerous figurative expressions in which efforts, opinions, and trends have converged for its establishment and the completion of its discussions. Perhaps the most important factor that contributed to the emergence of rhetorical studies and the deepening of its inquiries is the Quranic text, around which various studies revolved. It became the focal point of study in many Islamic Arabic sciences, including rhetorical studies. This field sparked extensive debates about the nature of eloquence in the Quran, the contemplation of its statements, its secrets, and inquiries into the reasons for the diversity of speech, the foundations of its rhetoric, and the various modes of expression and composition. This led to the beginning of the establishment of a scientific approach dedicated to studying the eloquent aspect of the Quran.</p> <p>Eloquence is one of the most important sciences that help in understanding the Quran, its miracles, and appreciating the beauty of its extraordinary qualities in words, meanings, style, and composition (prosody), which began with Imam Al-Khattabi and culminated in the theory of Abdul Qahir Al-Jurjani.</p> <p>As we approach this topic for study, we are faced with an important problem: What is the concept of eloquence according to Imam Al-Khattabi, and what is the reality of the eloquent aspect? What new insights have emerged in rhetorical studies?</p> <p>The aim of this research is to attempt to clarify the concept of eloquence according to Al-Khattabi in the fourth century Hijri and explain the secret of rhetorical eloquence in the Quranic text.</p> <p>Based on the hypothesis and its expected results, the miraculous studies, which began with theologians, especially the Mu'tazilites such as Al-Jahiz, Abu Isa Al-Ramani, Al-Qadi Abdul Jabbar, and Al-Zamakhshari, and then the Ash'aris, such as Abu Bakr Al-Baqillani and Abdul Qahir Al-Jurjani, have all made valuable contributions to this field. However, this subject still requires someone with a deeper understanding and more comprehensive perspective.</p> Antar Gacem, Derradji Saidi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-04 2023-10-04 60 2 2132 2140 The Relationship between Christian Parenting, Lecturer Personality Competence, and Involvement of Academic Supervisors with the Christian Character of Tarutung State Institute for Christian Studies Students <p>This study aims to&nbsp; analyze the relationship between Christian parenting style and student Christian character; analyze the relationship between lecturer personality competence and student Christian character; analyze the relationship between the involvement of academic supervisors and the Christian character of students; and analyze the relationship between Christian parenting, lecturer personality competence, and involvement of academic supervisors together with student Christian character Tarutung State Institute for Christian Studies. The method used in this study uses a Quantitative approach using inferential descriptive statistical data analysis. This study consists of four variables, namely: bound variable (Y): Christian character of students, independent variable (X<sub>1</sub>): Christian parenting, independent variable (X<sub>2</sub>): Competence of lecturer personality, independent variable (X<sub>3</sub>). The target population of this study is all 210 students in the fourth semester of Christian Education Department. The determination of the number of samples in this study was 32% of all students in the fourth semester of the Christian Education Department totaling 210, then the total number of samples was 68 people. The determination of sampling is by random sampling. The type of instrument used to collect data is a closed questionnaire. To measure response answers, a Likert scale is used which has four answer choices. The results of data analysis show that in general there is a relationship between independent variables and dependent variables, and based on data analysis statistical calculations in hypothesis testing have proven that the four hypotheses proposed are accepted as true.</p> Dame Taruli Simamora, Lince Sihombing, Junjungan Simorangkir Copyright (c) 2023 Psychology and Education Journal 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 60 2 2141 2150 Development of Bible Study Teaching Materials as an Effort to Shape Youth Spirituality at the Indonesian Methodist Church (GMI) Resort Tarutung <p>This study aims&nbsp; to produce Bible Study teaching materials as an effort to shape the spirituality of adolescents; to determine the quality of Bible Study teaching materials as an effort to form the spirituality of adolescents; and to explain the effectiveness of Bible Study teaching &nbsp;materials as an effort to shape the&nbsp; spirituality of adolescents. The type of research used in this research is research and development. The development and research model used in this study is the model developed by Sugiyono from the Borg and Gall model. This research is limited to seven steps, namely: potential and problem, data identification, product design, design validation, design revision, product trial and product revision. The subjects used as trials in this development research have 2 elements, namely material expert tests and Bible Study material design tests. While the object of this research and development is teaching materials for Bible Study as an effort to improve youth spirituality in the Indonesian Methodist Church (GMI) Resort Tarutung. This research and development resulted in a product in the form of a textbook in the form of a Bible Studybook as an effort to build youth spirituality at GMI Resort Tarutung. Based on the assessment of 5 PA teaching material validators, an average score of 3.61 was obtained with a percentage of 90.25% in the very good category, this shows that the quality of the Bible Study teaching materials produced is of very good quality and suitable for use by youth fellowship groups at GMI resort Tarutung. From the results of large group and small group trials, an average score of 3.77 was obtained with a percentage of 94.42% in the very good category, this figure shows that teaching materials / Bible Study books are included in the category of very effective and very useful.</p> Maria Widiastusi, Simion D. Harianja, Hanna Dewi Aritonang Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 60 2 2151 2156 The Influence of Lecturer Pedagogic Competence, Discipline, and Pastoral Assistance on the Moral Quality of STB HKBP Students in Laguboti <p>The problem in this study is the moral quality of students of Bibelvrow High School (STB) HKBP Laguboti which must be improved and must be prepared as an ordination service devoted to serving women, women, and children. This study aims to determine the influence&nbsp; of lecturer pedagogic competence (selection of learning materials), discipline and pastoral assistance on the moral quality of STB HKBP students in Laguboti. The type of research used is quantitative research, with a population as well as a sample of students who are still actively studying at Bibelvrow High School (STB) Laguboti Toba, stambuk 2019 to stambuk 2021 totaling 127 people, using saturated sampling techniques. Data collection techniques using questionnaires. All questionnaires tested are valid and reliable. The lecturer’s pedagogic competence coefficient gave a value of 0.361, the discipline coefficient gave a value of 0.475, the pastoral assistance coefficient gave a value of 0.356. &nbsp;The results showed&nbsp; that the pedagogical competence of lecturers, discipline and pastoral assistance had a positive and significant influence, both partially and simultaneously on the moral quality of STB HKBP students in Laguboti. Based on multiple regression estimates, the result Y = 22,080 + 0.361 X<sub>1 +</sub> 0.475 X<sub>2</sub> + 0.356 X<sub>3</sub> was obtained. The result of the regression calculation is that the coefficient of determination (adjusted R<sup>2</sup>) is obtained at 0.954 (95.4%).</p> Darna Situmorang, Andar Gunawan Pasaribu, Ibelala Gea Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 60 2 2157 2164 Effect of Preaching Quality, Ministers’ Behavior, and Pastoral Counseling Assistance on the Increase of Fathers' Churches Attendance In Sunday Worship at Batak Protestant Christian (HKBP) Church of District 1v, Toba <p>The research problem is the decreasing fathers’ church attendance during Sunday services at Batak Protestant Christian (HKBP) Churches of District IV, Toba. The study aims to determine effect of preaching quality, ministers’ behavior, and pastoral counseling on the increase of fathers' attendance during Sunday services at Batak Protestant Christian (HKBP) Churches of District IV, Toba. This research employed a quantitative research method. Its population was all of members of Batak Protestant Christian (HKBP) Churches of District IV, Toba. Probability sampling technique was used to determine its samples. They consisted of 99 married male members of the churches. Its data were collected by means of questionnaire. Before use, all of questionnaire items were tested and declared valid and reliable. The result of the analysis shows that the coefficient values of preaching quality, ministers’ behavior, and pastoral counseling assistance was 0.352, 0.210, and 0.187 respectively, indicating that the preaching quality, the ministers’ behavior, and pastoral counseling assistance had a positive and significant effect on the increase of the fathers’attendance in Sunday services at Batak Protestant Christian (HKBP) Churches of District IV, Toba either partially or simultaneously. Based on multiple regression analysis, the result was Y = 0.181 + 0.352 X1 + 0.210 X2 + 0.187 X3, meaning that that the coefficient of determination (adjusted R2) was 0.986 (98.6%).</p> Roslinda Sihombing, Binur Panjaitan, Hanna Dewi Aritonang Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 60 2 2165 2172 Social solidarity through social media: A sociological approach of the Association “kafil elyatim" – Mostaganem Algéria <p>This article focuses on the study of the issue of social solidarity on social media, while approaching the Association “Kafil elyatim”, Mostaganem-Sayada branch through its Facebook page.</p> <p>this work&nbsp; aims to discover ways to practice charity work in terms of content and values promoted, we relied on a methodological &nbsp;plan aims to analyze some blogs related to charity work for orphans and widows in a specific period of time (Ramadan 2023), using the direct observation tool.&nbsp; the results are as follows:</p> <p>Through its Facebook page, the association focused on the charitable act related to Ramadan basket food; the new Eid clothes, and promoted religious and social values related to cooperation and social solidarity&nbsp;; worship value</p> Hassina Bouada Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 60 2 2173 2187 Protection systems of real cultural property in the Law related to the protection of cultural heritage <p>The protection of cultural real property is one of the most important topics that have been widely circulated in the legal arena, as it represents the historical memory of peoples as unique aesthetic, artistic and architectural value. In addition, it contributes to the development of tourism, Algeria was encouraged to work firmly and recruit its material and human energies in order to protect this cultural heritage from all risks that may lead to its deterioration and annihilation evanescence, This was done by laying legal bases. So, this law resulted in promulgation of act no 98-04 related to the protection of cultural heritage, according to this law, a pack of legal mechanisms were framed for protecting&nbsp; the real cultural property,&nbsp; That&nbsp; include the procedures of its inventory and its enrollment&nbsp; within the protection systems, also the ways of how to practice the artistic works on it.</p> Mohamed Arbaoui, Youcef Karkar, Hana Lebsir Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-10 2023-10-10 60 2 2188 2209 The relation between a daughter -in-law and the mother -in-law in Algerian society <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Spouses are the foundation of the family in society. They may live in a nuclear family with their children, and sometimes the family may be extended, where the husband’s parents live with them. Here the wife enters into interactions with his family, especially the husband’s mother. The relationship between the mother-in-law and the daughter-in-law is considered one of the most complex and unexplainable family relationships. it is sometimes characterized by understanding, adaptation and balance, and in some cases it is known for its tensions. It may lead the mother-in-law and daughter-in-law to conflicts and problems with bad consequences, and all of this results from the desire of each of them to monopolize the attention of the husband-son, and this tension may lead to the ruin and destruction of families and the rupture of human relations. Cultural heritage bears part of this inferiority view of the mother-in-law, and the man bears a great responsibility to resolve disputes, end tension between his mother and his wife, and bridge the distance between them so that the mother does not feel jealous or neglectful. From this standpoint, our field study will attempt to answer the following questions:</p> <ul> <li>Does socialization play a role in determining the relationship between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law?</li> <li>Does cultural heritage supported by the media have a role in determining the relationship between the mother-in-law and the daughter-in-law?</li> </ul> Madoui Nadjia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-10 2023-10-10 60 2 2210 2223 Physical Sports Activity: Between Practice Reality and the Impact of the Pandemic <p>Physical education and sports professors face numerous challenges when conducting physical education and sports lessons. These challenges arise from both their immediate environment, such as the institution's administration, and their external environment, represented by society, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. These problems range from the dismissive attitude that physical education and sports often receive from a significant portion of society to the negative perception held by some high school administrators. Consequently, the importance and role of physical education and sports are often marginalized, both at the student and school community levels, and sometimes even within society. As a result, physical education and sports professors often find themselves frustrated in their ongoing struggle against these circumstances and the changes brought about by the pandemic. The impact on physical education and sports classes has been significant, and in this research paper, we aim to shed light on the factors hindering physical education and sports professors from achieving their educational goals.</p> Chettouh Merouane Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-10 2023-10-10 60 2 2224 2243 Modern Technological Means and Their Educational Uses <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Modern technological means are considered advanced communication tools that utilize everything new and contemporary in the field of using and employing means and techniques. These means reflect societal progress in both the cognitive and technical aspects during the modern era. The use of these technological means, including devices, techniques, and methods, has extended across various sectors due to their significance in achieving objectives.</p> <p>The educational sector is considered one of the important sectors that has shifted towards using methods and approaches relying on technology or modern devices. It is expected that these approaches will help in developing scientific thinking skills and knowledge acquisition methods, enhancing problem-solving abilities, and achieving educational goals if chosen, prepared, and utilized effectively within an integrated educational framework</p> Ajimi nora, Merani Hacen Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-10 2023-10-10 60 2 2244 2253 The Reality of Mental Health for Students Who are About to Graduate as Psychologists -Clinical Study for Master's Students 2 Model <p>The present study aimed to try to reveal the reality of mental health for students who are about to graduate as psychologists, Master 2 students. And we applied the youth mental health scale to Abdul Muttalib Amin Al-Quraiti, after studying its psychometric properties The results showed that the mental health of students who are about to graduate from psychology is above average. The study also revealed that there are statistically significant differences between the dimensions of the mental health test.</p> Otmani Naima, Mahsar Aounia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-14 2023-10-14 60 2 2254 2270 Medical Scientists in the Umayyad and Abbasid Periods <p>The flourishing of Arab culture during the Umayyad and Abbasid eras was attributed to the awareness of Muslims, following their interactions with other cultures such as the Persian and Roman, regarding the need to transfer the scientific treasures of these nations. Muslims were interested in translating various ancient sciences, such as medicine and chemistry, from Greek, Persian, and Indian into Arabic. They found their opportunity in the schools prevalent between the Tigris and Euphrates and neighboring lands. Based on the foregoing, this article aims to present the most important Muslim physicians who emerged in the second Hijri century and attempt to portray the role of physicians and their innovations during that period.</p> Dahmoun Mouna Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-14 2023-10-14 60 2 2271 2286 Socio-economic analysis and typology of agricultural holdings in the Souf region CITY-ALGERIA <p>Algerian Saharan region is considered the most vulnerable area to the microclimate degradation effects, due to the fragility of its ecosystem, economies, and infrastructure. In fact, from an economic standpoint, this climatic fragility affects the agricultural production in the oases, which largely affects the quality of life in brittle desert areas. This study highlights farming in the Oued Souf area (southeast of Algeria) through work includes, as well, two main factors such as technological intervention and informed policy support, which mainly affect the farms currently.&nbsp;<a href="">Furthermore</a>, this study analyses these farms at both terms of socioeconomic and technical levels. Moreover, the surveys concerned 120 randomly selected farms located in five municipalities (Hassi Khelifa, Trifaoui, Ouermes, Reguiba, and Taghzout), and used a close questionnaire containing structured and semi-structured questions.&nbsp;<a href="">As a result</a>, the study determined four types of farms based on economic, social, and technical criteria using multivariate statistical techniques such as Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The first type is composed of farms, where the owners/managers are the most engaged in agriculture; in the second type,&nbsp;<a href="">along with</a>&nbsp;the marketing of horticulture, there are arboriculture and date palms, where pivot irrigation and drip irrigation are used. The third type includes farms with large areas and less consumption of incoming budget. Finally, the fourth type covers farms whose Owners/managers are changing their activity.</p> Sabah Adjlane, Tarek Mokhnane , Reguia Khiari, Abdelkarim MELLAH Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-14 2023-10-14 60 2 2287 2304 Towards the completion of an Algerian linguistic atlas -methods and stages <p>This research aims to stand at the concept of linguistic atlases and the methods of their completion by presenting some attempts similar to the method of the German, French and American atlases and revealing some of its pros and cons as well.</p> <p>The research presents the stages of completing an Algerian linguistic atlas by making use of the aforementioned atlases, and directs researchers to pay attention to these survey studies, which have many benefits, to reach a conclusion that summarizes the main results.</p> Mebrouk barkat Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-14 2023-10-14 60 2 2305 2317 Attracting talent in Algerian private institutions -Case of wilayas of Algiers and Blida <p>The strength of the institution lies in the strength and effectiveness of the performance of its members, especially in light of the changes taking place in the environment and the intensity of competition, and the extent to which it copes and adapts to the changes and transformations that occur in the environment, and its ability to face the challenges and internal and external conditions of the institution. Therefore, it is necessary for institutions to find mechanisms and tools to approach the market of competencies to attract the executives that are in dire need of them in order to use the energy and creative resources that this category possesses in developing the productivity or organizational effectiveness of the institution so that it can respond to the size and speed of these changes that occur in society. Achieve its strategic objectives. Through this study, we aim to understand the recruitment process by exploring the behaviour of institutions towards the talent market, meaning how do institutions approach the talent market to obtain their required competencies and what are the means used to attract them?</p> Pr. Moulai Ali Zohra Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-14 2023-10-14 60 2 2318 2331 Manuscripts Documentary heritage in Alaoui Zaouia in Mostaganem <p>The Allaouian Librery contains about two thousand Manuscripts&nbsp;,there are many of them which are written and other ones not yet. Despite of the great amount of this stock. I’ve shed light on the Allaouian Zaouia’s publications in my work&nbsp; and it was about Sufism and Doctrinal writing .And before treating these manuscripts I’ve given brief biographies about&nbsp; a lot of the Allaouian and Sufi Zaouia’s religious men and their main works. I’ve also presented in details Chikhs’ Manuscripts publications which I described it materially and technically giving its contain and copying ‘s information.</p> Dr.Slimane Ouzar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-14 2023-10-14 60 2 2332 2341 Thinking Patterns of Spouses in Light of Herman's Theory <p>This study aims to identify the prevailing thinking patterns of both spouses according to Herman's theory. To ascertain these patterns, a descriptive approach based on the exploratory descriptive method most suitable for the study was employed. The study was conducted on a sample of (60) spouses selected through simple random sampling. Using the data collection tool represented by the Ned Herman Thinking Styles Inventory, statistical methods such as frequency and percentage distribution, mean, and standard deviation were employed. The predominant thinking pattern among wives is Style (C), where individuals associated with this thinking style tend to be empathetic towards people and events. They rely on intuition and approach problems emotionally rather than logically. The predominant thinking pattern among husbands is Style (B), characterized by a preference for conventional thinking methods, organization, an appreciation for orderly facts, a desire for stability, attention to detail, and an ability for operational planning.</p> Samira Amamra, Amina Attia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-16 2023-10-16 60 2 2342 2355 Contribution of a Muscle Relaxation-Based Training Protocol to alleviate Nicotine Dependency in Two cases of smoking addicts <p>This study aims to verify the contribution of a training protocol based on muscle relaxation techniques in teaching and equipping individuals addicted to smoking with skills and experiences on how to control their bodies and cope with stress and tension, thereby managing strong cravings. This is achieved through fundamental mechanisms that involve body relaxation, also known as attunement to the body (listening to the body) through muscle group activities, followed by mental focus on the distinction between the neuromuscular tension and relaxation process, with the primary driver being suggestive language</p> Bourouba Amel, Kettaf Rezki Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 60 2 2356 2374 The idea of the end of literature and its influence on Arab identity <p>The call for the death of literature in Arab culture is one of the most important claims of modernity, which is promoted by a number of Western critics who seek to obliterate the heritage and replace it by western modernity with all its projects. However, this call, apart from being a literal transfer of what the west has said, and is not based on any identity rule that is justified in our culture, is only a hypothesis that is impossible to apply on the ground because literature in relation to human life is hard to die so easily. The idea of literature death has also come within the call for interaction and the melting of cultures, which means the melting of Arab culture (subjugated) in western culture (dominant). This is unacceptable because the culture of Arabs is different from that of other nations, and it has settled on a set of fixed values that are impossible to discard.</p> Brik Soumia, Fatiha Kahlouche Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 60 2 2375 2386 Christian ethic from the thought of Moses to the thought of Jesus Christ <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The history of humanity is linked to submission to moral thought, which resulted in an ideological struggle between the currents because of the contradictions they faced over the ages, as well as creating doctrinal accumulations with the emergence of religions, trying to cling to the sacred texts and adhere to them to get out of the intellectual wandering seeking moral elevation, but the matter took a different character between Judaism and Christianity because of the texts they contain in common, despite this, there was an intellectual attraction, each according to what they have followed from the Testament, and we see that moral gradation in the Bible between what came from the teachings of Moses and the teachings of Jesus, peace be upon them both.</p> Boudaoud Mohamed el Mehdi, Dr. Belkhir Mourad Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 60 2 2387 2399 Quranic subtleties: their nature, mechanisms, rules and results <p>The Quranic subtleties are considered to be among the secrets of the Quran's miracle, and eloquence. Hence, this miraculous book in its words and structures has been the focus of attention of scholars and researchers throughout the ages.</p> <p>This study came to shed light on the reality of the subtleties, their relationship to meanings, the mechanisms used in them, the rules that scholars have established to extract them, and then their benefit&nbsp;in&nbsp;the&nbsp;Quran</p> Dr. Choucha Mohammed Ridha Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 60 2 2400 2413 The crisis of translating the term in the social sciences <p>Translation is a transfer of the meaning of a term from the mother tongue or source to the equivalent meaning in another language, or the target language. Each science, whether in the social, legal, medical, economic or other fields, is based on a bank of terms that allow the specialist to use and employ them technically, for example, psychology is witnessing a great development and an explosion of information and modern terminology, which has become important to find the equivalent term in the Arabic language, and the translation of the term in various sciences is an important tributary of its sciences, and an important factor for the transfer of information, as well as the expansion and spread of these sciences and the Arabic language in itself, because it will transmit modern information.</p> Ben Amer Zakiya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 60 2 2414 2423 Modern Media and Communication Tools and Their Impact on Physical Sports Activity among Algerian Children <p>This research addresses the reality experienced by Algerian children through a descriptive analytical study using a questionnaire directed at the parents of children in the primary education stage. The aim is to determine the extent to which their children are inclined towards technological media and communication tools and their impact on their physical activity at home, as well as the extent of the child's engagement in physical and sports activities, whether in school or outside. The results reveal a significant percentage of children showing an interest in modern media and communication tools due to the amenities and entertainment options provided by contemporary life, including electronic games and media and communication tools. On the other hand, there is insufficient enthusiasm for physical and sports activities. Additionally, educational institutions, both schools and sports clubs, do not show a serious commitment to providing the necessary conditions and guiding children toward regular and continuous physical activity to achieve educational and healthy goals through the media role of the sports educator.</p> SEKHRI Akila Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-30 2023-10-30 60 2 2424 2440 Adopting social responsibility in pharmaceutical companies between theory and reality <p>The study aimed at analyzing and highlighting the reality of adopting social responsibility in<br />pharmaceutical companies at the theoretical level, and then trying to project this onto reality<br />through facts and events. Since the pharmaceutical industry is one of the most important industries at the global level, it is a highly competitive industry with high returns, as it comes in third place after the arms and software industry, as it has received great interest in all countries due to the importance of medicine and its direct connection to the health of the individual. This type of industry is controlled by giant monopolistic companies. It possesses high capabilities in the field of research and development, committed to the application of social responsibility, especially as it has a noble goal linked to the goal of making money, which is to preserve human health. In order to answer the problem and hypotheses of the study, the descriptive approach was followed in the theoretical side and analytical in the applied side, and it was concluded that the pharmaceutical companies do not adopt social responsibility in respect of human rights, transparency, respect for regulations and laws. So that its profit goal blinded it from humanity and the preservation of the human spirit</p> Moulefera Fatima Zahra, Farsi Fatna Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 60 2 2441 2455 Stylistic and narrative analysis Sparrow from the east Tawfiq Al-Hakim (Model) <p>Language is an effective linguistic tool that connects the various ideas between themselves and the tangible physical reality lived by the human being through what is known as the discourse that has multiple forms and templates established through the speaker being the first contributor to present the various language structures formulated with the required accuracy and wrapped in appropriate aesthetic garments to make it a field full of vague&nbsp;, purposeful signs aimed at collecting scattered pieces of the artistic literary graphic artistic image by the writer and making them a private world that attracts the examining reader to enter its own world Through the descriptive analytical approach, the following problems will be answered: what is the accurate and circulating concept of narrative discourse, where does the difficulty lie in providing clear steps for the narrative stylistic analysis process?</p> Al-Zohra Cherabi, Mohamed Ghalem Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 60 2 2456 2464 The foundations of educational and social reforme by Sheikh Al- Amin Soltani in Al-kantara <p>The general situation in Algeria Dring the years of 1920 untel the Association of Muslim Scholars in 1931, saw the emergence of a new trend in th national resistance represented in eductional advocacy, journalism and social reform.</p> <p>The sons of the- east of Alegria didnt be late to keep up with this reforming Among them is Shikh Al- Amin Soltany,who plaed an important role in activating the reform and revival movement, In this article we focus on the cultural&nbsp; resistance in the southeastern region of Algeria, especially the town of Kantara, and the role played by Sheikh Al- Amin Soltany as on of the regional flags,Oppose Charles and his most important pillar in the reform movement to defeat the goals of French colonialism and thwart his plans.</p> Nassima Zekak Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 60 2 2465 2480 The deception of writing and the wanderings of passion in the novel Mistresses of the Bastard by Kamal Al-Riahi <p>Granted novel mistresses bastard different aesthetic practice aimed at pulling the reader and thrust him into the maze of narrative provocative, multiple visions and narrative techniques known by the Tunisian novelist Kamal Riahi, to overwhelm the conscience of the speaker narcissistic passions leader and marcher rebel and rejectionist, but emotionally flowing extends throughout the crises of the personality and times, it is clear features of the stream of consciousness stark through the diary speech of transgression imposed by the ideas of the writer and its ideological dimensions, was the contribution of this research through two axes:&nbsp;&nbsp; 1- The deception and the trap of the threshold 2- The stream of consciousness and the pattern of passion</p> Dr.BOUZIDI Zahira Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 60 2 2481 2498 Effectiveness of a Psycho-Supportive Training Program Based on Play Activities in Developing Some Cognitive Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. <p>This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a psycho-supportive training program based on play activities in developing some cognitive skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study was conducted at the Psycho-Pedagogical Center in Mostaganem, Algeria. The main tool of the study was the psycho-supportive training program based on play activities designed by the researcher, as well as the Adel scale for diagnosing ASD, the Raven intelligence test, and the cognitive skills test. The study sample consisted of 6 children with ASD, who were divided into two groups: an experimental group of 3 children who received training on the program, and a control group of 3 children who did not receive training on the program. The study results showed that the psycho-supportive training program based on play activities effectively developed some cognitive skills in children with ASD.</p> Soumya Keddi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 60 2 2499 2512 International and National Organizations and Agreements Related to the Protection of Submerged Cultural Heritage <p>In recent years, there has been an increased focus on the exploration and preservation of submerged archaeological sites, whether in seas, oceans, or other bodies of water. These underwater sites are rich in artifacts dating back to various historical periods, reflecting human activity in various domains. Due to the significant importance of these discovered relics as complements to those found on land, it has become imperative for various international organizations to enact laws aimed at protecting this type of heritage. Algeria, like many other countries worldwide, has not overlooked this aspect, as evidenced by Law 98-04 concerning the protection of cultural heritage. What are the most important international agreements regulating submerged cultural heritage within water? In this research, we will discuss the key international organizations working in the field of culture in general and archaeology in particular, and their roles in safeguarding submerged archaeological sites. We will also examine the efforts of some countries in this field, in addition to Algeria's endeavors to protect this type of heritage.</p> Assafsaf Cherifa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 60 2 2513 2523 Strategies and methods to facilitate the acquisition of oral language in children <p>This article came to explain some strategies and methods to facilitate the acquisition of oral language in children because of the importance of linguistic development in the child and the subsequent gains that result from it, the most important of which are schooling and social adaptation.</p> <p>The interest in this topic was due tothe frequent visits to the speech therapy examination clinic at the university hospital and the confusion and anxiety of parents, so we wanted to shed light on linguistic skills, linguistic development and its characteristics, as well as the factors affecting linguistic development, then a brief presentation of some of the mechanisms and strategies that can ease the acquisition of oral language in children.</p> Dr. Djaout Fatiha epse Chaib Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 60 2 2524 2534 Rhythmic orchestration in the Poetry of Afif Eddine Al Tilimsani - syllable and measure models- <p>The poetic text is full of phonetic values which combine in a specific way. Indeed, poetry is characterize by internal and external rhythmical features that rally in one way or another, and that contribute in creating the general coherence&nbsp; of rhythm. Abi rabia Afif eddine Al Tilimsani’s poems may illustrate the concept of the stylistic and rhythmical cooperation. Since rhythmical levels differ within the frame of phonetic structure, we have chosen to uncover the stylistic&nbsp; and rhythmical facts at the level of syllables&nbsp; and&nbsp; their&nbsp; cooperation with the construction or the pattern as it is embodied in the measures and in the rhyme . How does this cooperation between style and rhythm reveal itself in the poems by Abi rabia’ through the phonetic syllables and Khallili measures? And has this divergent and pluralistic couple of syllable and measure&nbsp; contribute in constructing a unified weft for the poetic rhythm?</p> Chetrah Ahmed Cherif Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-07 2023-11-07 60 2 2535 2547 Factors Related to Taiwanese University Students’ Engagement and Burnout: The Moderating Role of Perceived Competence <p>The period of university study is normally marked with many challenges. Academic burnout appears to have become more prevalent among university students. There is a shortage of studies on university students’ academic burnout in the non-Western setting. To address this shortage, the present study attempts to explore the moderating effects of Taiwanese university students’ perceived competence on the relationships of each component of self-compassion (i.e., self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness) with work engagement and academic burnout. Also, this study examines the interrelationships between the three components of students’ self-compassion, perceived competence, perfectionistic tendencies (i.e., perfectionistic strivings versus perfectionistic concerns), work engagement, and academic burnout. Five hundred and four Taiwanese undergraduate students completed a self-reported survey assessing the variables described above. The results of this study contribute to the literature in several ways. First, moderation analyses indicate that perceived competence play the moderating role in the relationships of the components of self-compassion with work engagement and academic burnout. Second, hierarchical regression analyses suggest that there exist differences in the relationships of each component of self-compassion with students’ work engagement and academic burnout. Finally, the findings from this study lend support to the two-factor model of perfectionism. Perfectionistic strivings positively predict work engagement, whereas perfectionistic concerns are positively associated with academic burnout. Implications for practices and future research are discussed.</p> Shu-Shen Shih Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-07 2023-11-07 60 2 2548 2576 level of The Algerian student in between the reasons of declineand mechanisms of epidemiology <p>This research aims at shedding light on schooling achievement that is a complicated theme as it is has many consequences related to the future of a whole generation. For such a deal this paper aims at detecting the main reason and difficulties that face the student at the university linked to his or her level decline of achievement as well as finding out the adequate mechanism of upgrading in the nearest future.</p> <p>As for the most useful results after this research we do state the fact that the hand caps of the schooling achievement in the Algerian society is not the problem of the weak student only but of some interfered other factors as well and that are the common responsibility of the student, the family and the teacher as well as the educational institutions.</p> Dahmani hamza Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-07 2023-11-07 60 2 2577 2586 The question of Arabic identity between cultural diversity and multilingualism -Maghreb popular proverbs as a model- <p>In our study, we seek to explain the role that Maghreb popular proverbs play in building the culture of Maghreb society and establishing their shared genetic genes;&nbsp;as well as its impacts in the establishment of social networking and community cohesion in the context of historical interdependence and geographical proximity, in addition to the sociocultural blending of Maghreb peoples, despite their different dialects and linguistic uses. In the light of Maghreb popular proverbs’ models, in social, cultural and intellectual contexts, our research paper aims to answer the following questions:</p> <p>-What are the limits of cultural interaction and social attraction among the peoples of the Arab nation from the point of view of Arab popular proverbs? Why is bilinguals and identity a fertile substance in this communicative patrimony heritage?</p> <p>- How did their image come in the light of the societal and identity diversity? What impact has this had on the culture and identity of Maghreb society?</p> Bouirane Ouarda Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-07 2023-11-07 60 2 2587 2598 Information retrieval techniques using Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in information centers: A review Article <p>Expert systems, a field of applied artificial intelligence, have revolutionized information management by enhancing indexation and improving abstraction. They analyze content, resulting in accurate indexes and saving time. Through the use of production rules, expert systems generate high-quality summaries. While the MRS Sharif system faced challenges in book classification at the University of Strathclyde, it contributed to training classifiers in libraries. Overall, expert systems have transformed information retrieval, boosting efficiency and accuracy. Ongoing research and development continue to shape their potential, playing a vital role in managing information effectively and supporting the globalization of the educational environment.</p> <p>This study highlights the successful implementation of expert systems in indexation, enabling accurate content analysis and efficient indexing. Expert systems also refine summaries by employing production rules and specific techniques for better abstraction. However, applying expert systems in classification was limited to the MRS Sharif system, which encountered weaknesses and ultimately failed as a project. Nevertheless, it found a new purpose in training classifiers for libraries. These findings underscore the significant impact of expert systems in information management, emphasizing the ongoing necessity for further research and development</p> Djoumana, Lemounes Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-08 2023-11-08 60 2 2599 2602 The implicit cultural patterns in the novel “hāwyat ālmra ālmtwḥša” by Abdelkarim Yanina <p>The present research paper aims to analyze the discourse of implicit patterns in the novel (hāwyat ālmra ālmtwḥša: raehat el oum) by Abdelkarim Yanina as a deep and well-written cultural text that delves into the history of the country and reflects and portrays its culture, its setbacks, its tragedies, and tribulations. Moreover, these patterns include the identity pattern, the identity of the place (hāwyat ālmra ālmtwḥša), this same lost identity of the nation as a direct consequence of the calamities that successively affected it, the pattern of the black decade that sent the country and its people into a dark tunnel following its initial searching for the best, and the pattern of alienation and emigration outside the country, which is one of the impacts and causes of terrorism. Along with the pattern of the capital's "Chaabi traditional music" and the pattern of the metropolitan culture, the novel also features the pattern of scent, which has different manifestations in the form of the scents of the mother, the nation, the setting, and the character, as well as the pattern of history and an invitation to read and rewrite the book.</p> Sahnine ali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-09 2023-11-09 60 2 2603 2613 Characteristics of children who excel academically and mechanisms for caring for them <p>The subject of academic excellence occupies great importance in psychology, due to its importance, considering that the outstanding are the elite of human wealth with their special abilities and high intelligence. The developed countries have paid all attention to these groups by caring for them physically, psychologically and socially, while providing material incentives and providing foreign missions to encourage excellence, develop it and benefit from it in the service and advancement of society. Where many scientific fields have been interested and still are pushing those in charge of psychology and education affairs, in particular, to reveal superior models and take care of the family and school climate, as well as the environmental motivating to refine and invest these energies.</p> Benderbal Malika Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-12 2023-11-12 60 2 2614 2624 A Study on the Conversational Voice Intensity in Alzheimer's Disease <p>Recent research has increasingly focused on the acoustic characteristics of voice in diagnosing and assessing degenerative disorders. Therefore, this study aims to identify the impact of Alzheimer's disease on the intensity of conversational voice. The research problem statement can be summarized as follows: Are there statistically significant differences in the intensity of conversational voice between individuals with Alzheimer's disease and the standard intensity? To answer this question, a sample of 41 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, ranging in age from 53 to 90 years, was selected. The intensity of their conversational voice was analyzed using the computer program Praat, which objectively analyzes the acoustic characteristics of sound. The mean intensity of their conversational voice was then compared to the mean standard intensity mentioned in the literature using the t-test to study the differences. The results revealed an increase in the intensity of conversational voice in individuals with Alzheimer's disease compared to the standard intensity. This can be attributed to the behavioural and cognitive disturbances commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease.</p> Metref Ouarda, Belkai Baya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-12 2023-11-12 60 2 2625 2645 The effectiveness of the educational picture in the Algerian textbook and its relationship with the protectors of educational clips and text -Arabic Language book for third year of primary educational as a model- <p>The educational image is of great importance in the teaching-learning process, as it is an auxiliary means to bring scientific facts closer together and consolidate them in the minds of the learners. Therefore, it was included in the Algerian textbook, especially in the primary education stage, to enhance the learner’s communicative competence and support his cognitive acquisitions and linguistic skills. It is also a factor in understanding the text accompanying it, and supporting it to facilitate the process of comprehension and understanding among learners.</p> <p>This is what prompted us to research the effectiveness of this method and its relationship to the educational clips and texts in the Arabic language textbook for the third year of primary school. This study aims to establish precise scientific foundations for the design and selection of the educational images included in the textbook so that they are consistent and consistent with the titles of the educational clips and texts, in addition to highlighting their role. In facilitating the process of understanding and simplifying knowledge and&nbsp; information.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rouabhia Hadda Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-14 2023-11-14 60 2 2646 2659 The expansion of French colonialism in the northern Algerian Sahara and its impact on the caravan trade. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this research paper, the researcher addresses the problem of French colonial expansion in the northern Algerian Sahara and its impact on the caravan trade. The researcher found that after defeating the resistance of Emir Abdelkader and Ahmed Bey in the north, French colonialism began to advance towards the northern Sahara in order to control these regions, which were havens for rebels and resistance fighters. Military operations in these areas were accompanied by the establishment of systems and laws to control trade between the north and the south. The penetration of colonialism and its control over the centres of the northern Algerian Sahara led to the collapse of the caravan trade, resulting in dire conditions in the desert regions.</p> Dr Chikh Lakehal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-14 2023-11-14 60 2 2660 2672 The impact of the activation of e-government on the reform and development of public infrastructure in Algeria <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The issue of e-government and its relationship to the development of public infrastructure is of great importance. The transition to electronic public services is crucial for streamlining and improving services, thereby providing a framework for the development of governance systems and public affairs. This approach aims to provide efficient, effective and citizen-satisfying public services. In light of this, various government departments and public institutions have sought to move away from traditional methods of service delivery and embrace e-government. The latter has a significant impact on public infrastructure and the quality of services provided to citizens. It facilitates the transition from traditional bureaucratic service delivery to an electronic format that emphasises speed, transparency and objectivity in public service delivery.</p> Fadel Ilhem Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-14 2023-11-14 60 2 2673 2694 The importance of sensory integration therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder <p>The study aimed to find out the importance of sensory integration in children with autism spectrum by reviewing 10 previous studies in this field using the analytical method. The results of the study concluded that sensory integration therapy applied for children with &nbsp;autism spectrum has different goals such as &nbsp;to reduce isolationist behavior in reducing speech disorder, reduce sensory response problems, and to reduce non-adaptive behaviors. The study also found that there are different means to measure sensory integration in children with autism spectrum. The study showed the effectiveness of the programs based on sensory integration in autistic children. In addition, studies are needed in a larger group of children with varying levels of autism traits</p> Fouires Romaissa, Mehrezi Malika Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-15 2023-11-15 60 2 2695 2704 The role of organisational environment in enhancing psychological well-being of nurses: A field study in Saadna Abd Al-Nur Hospital, Setif <p>This study aimed to reveal the role of the organizational environment in promoting mental health among nurses at Saadna Abdelnour Hospital in Setif. Our study started from the following central question:</p> <p>Does the organizational environment have a role in promoting mental health among nurses at Saadna Abdel Nour Hospital in Setif?</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; To answer it, the descriptive approach was relied upon as it was compatible with the nature of the study, and it was conducted on a sample of 60 nurses. The data collection tool was the questionnaire distributed on two axes: (organizational environment and mental health). Its data was statistically analyzed using the statistical package program SPSS, and the results of the study were reached. Until:</p> <p>The organizational structure has a role in promoting mental health among nurses at Saadna Abdel Nour Hospital in Setif.</p> <p>Organizational communication has a role in promoting mental health among nurses at Saadna Abdel Nour Setif Hospital - The nature of the work has a role in promoting mental health among nurses at Saadna Abdel Nour Setif Hospital -</p> <p>Hence, we presented a set of recommendations and suggestions to the managers under study and to the managers of hospital centers in general regarding the need to pay attention to the organizational environment and mental health among nurses.</p> Dr. Diab Loubna Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-19 2023-11-19 60 2 2705 2721 Some human resource management strategies and their relationship with employees' quality of work life: A field study in Al-Shahid Ben Omar Al-Jilani Hospital in Al-Wadi <p>This study aims to clarify human resource management strategies and highlight the concept of quality of working life through the interpretation and analysis of the nature and strength of the correlation between human resource management strategies and the quality of working life in Martyr Bin Omar Al-Jilani Hospital. Information, which included building the study tool for human resource management strategies, which contains (33) items، To identify the extent to which managers apply human resource management strategies, the study tool included a measure of the quality of work life developed by Walton and includes (42) items, which were developed to measure the quality of work life, and this tool was applied to a simple random sample of (50) workers. The researchers used many statistical methods based on the statistical package program (SPSS).</p> Hamza Ramdani, Dr.Fouzia Chibani Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-19 2023-11-19 60 2 2722 2734 The Impact of Translated Stories (Written and Visual) on the Formation of the Arab Child's Personality <p>The story, whether visual, auditory, written, translated, etc..., is one of the most prominent literary genres for children. It serves as the primary gateway to provide them with knowledge, introduces them to the principles of reading and writing, and presents them with captivating expressions that stimulate their talents. Moreover, stories offer enjoyment through the sequence of events and the behaviors of the characters, allowing children to interact with them through the thoughts, emotions, and feelings of the protagonists. Stories refine their psychological responses, satisfy their desires, and do so through their artistic structure and style.</p> Dr. reggab karima Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-19 2023-11-19 60 2 2735 2756 Colors in the novel "Les Misérables Also Dream" - by Mustafa Zaarouri a critical semantic approach <p>This study aims to investigate the depths of the semantic path of colors, which have become an intense appearance in the novel “Les Misérables Also Dream” by Mustafa Zaarouri. This ability is an indication of the aspect of transgression established by the various meanings. At that time, colors appeared that worked in turn to contribute to the structure of the fictional text, which made the novel It celebrates special colors that stem from the clarity of the narrator’s self and character. This enrichment in the choice of colors suggests the great importance of the narrator in intensifying the meaning of the text and thus its monotony.</p> Dr. Saliha Latreche Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-19 2023-11-19 60 2 2757 2769 Maritime rescue regulations in the light of the provisions of the Algerian maritime law <p>When ships are at sea, they may be exposed to various risks, as the seas are often fraught with such dangers. Therefore, it seems necessary to provide assistance and rescue to these ships so that they can overcome their crisis.</p> <p>The legislator has included the rescue at sea in the category of maritime incidents that prevent the continuation of a voyage, and these incidents can have serious consequences. However, not every mariner can be considered a rescuer, as the law requires certain conditions to be met in order to carry out a rescue at sea.</p> Dr. Drici Amina Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-19 2023-11-19 60 2 2770 2797 Unconstitutionality Review and Constitutional Justice in the Algerian Experience <p>The control of the constitutionality of laws is one of the main guarantees of the supremacy of the constitution in countries with rigid constitutions. One manifestation of this control is the mechanism of unconstitutionality review, which serves as a guarantee for achieving constitutional legitimacy. It is a constitutional mechanism designed to protect the rights and freedoms enshrined in the constitution. It is a retrospective instrument for monitoring the constitutionality of laws and regulations.</p> <p>This study aims to explore the concept of the unconstitutionality review mechanism and identify the conditions and regulations for its application, as well as the process of the Constitutional Court's involvement in the review of unconstitutionality in Algeria, particularly in light of the Algerian constitutional amendment of 2020 and Organic Law No. 22/19, which establishes the procedures and methods of notification and referral to the Constitutional Court</p> Soltani Leila Fatima Zohra Ghania Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-19 2023-11-19 60 2 2798 2819 Evaluating differently in the digital age: The case of Master's theses <p>The Master's dissertation is an important part of a student's academic journey. It represents the culmination of their extensive education and reflects their ability to define and execute a project in accordance with standards of writing and presentation. Like other forms of education, it serves as a means of training. Its purpose is to enable students to acquire the appropriate methodology for synthesis and to demonstrate their mastery of activities and resources related to their research topic. The support and guidance of students during this period is essential, through regular exchanges between the student and their research supervisor to address any concerns and provide direction.</p> ZEMOURA Siham, CHERAK Radhia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-19 2023-11-19 60 2 2820 2831 Renewal Aspects in the Objectives of the Sharia and Their Urban Dimensions "A study of the vision of Abdul Majid Al-Najjar". <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This article presents an analytical reading of the intellectual experience contributed by the contemporary Islamic thinker Abd al-Majid al-Najjar in the field of renewal, based on his reviews of Islamic thought in general and jurisprudential thought in particular. The article focuses on highlighting the aspects of renewal that al-Najjar has added to the knowledge of the objectives of the Shari'a and their connection to the urban dimension, considering that all the rulings of the Shari'a were issued by Allah Almighty to achieve objectives that bring good to human beings and enable them to fulfil the task of human administration with which they have been entrusted. This is the essence of the goals of the Shari'a according to al-Najjar.</p> Hadjira Chebli Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-19 2023-11-19 60 2 2832 2855 The method of historical criticism of Muslim historians <p>It is well known that history is the record of time and civilizations and the perspective on the conditions of countries and men, and for the benefit of transmitting its news and the biographies of role models from the Islamic nation, we had to be accurate in transmitting history, controlling it and scrutinizing it so that it is not used by our enemies to strike our doctrinal and civilizational gains .</p> Dr. Farida chikhi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-19 2023-11-19 60 2 2856 2868 Designed, Built, And Evaluated The Performance Of A Prototype Of A Smart Indirect Solar Dryer For Fruits And Vegetables <p>Tobacco growers in Algeria face crop losses due to mold and fungus susceptibility. Sun drying is a simple solution, but climate variability and environmental pollution can damage crops. To address this, experts recommend using solar dryers that don't require electricity. A team at AbdelHafid Boussouf Mila University Center designed and tested a smart indirect solar dryer (SISD). The dryer uses sensors to measure temperature and humidity, fans to stabilize the drying room, and insulation to control the drying process. The dryer's performance was evaluated using freshly harvested figs with moisture content up to 35%. The dryer can be manufactured in commercial sizes for rural communities to accelerate drying processes at variable cost.</p> Benlatreche Mohamed Salah, Soraya Merzouki, Billel Smaani, Ouafa Boukhemis, Omari Tahar, Boulbair Ramadhan, Gherda Sidali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-26 2023-11-26 60 2 2869 2877 Islamic banks and the application of financial technology (a statistical study) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study aims to determine the reality of technology, especially in Islamic finance in various countries of the world, and its opportunities to increase the effectiveness of the Islamic finance industry, where the problem was: What is the reality of financial technology in Islamic banks? And identifying the obstacles facing its development and adoption in the world, where we relied in our study on a theoretical approach and another by collecting statistical data. The study reached a set of results, the most important of which is that financial technology can open new horizons and many innovations in Islamic finance products, on the other hand, this contributes to improving access to high-quality financial services, the study concluded recommendations, the most important of which is necessary Islamic finance institutions may enter into partnerships with world-leading companies specialized in the field of financial technology, and this would help these institutions to maintain their market share, by offering innovative financial products to their customers.</p> Benhammou Fayza, Meziane Imen Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-26 2023-11-26 60 2 2878 2893 Evaluating differently in the digital age: The case of Master's theses <p>The Master's dissertation is an important part of a student's academic journey. It represents the culmination of their extensive education and reflects their ability to define and execute a project in accordance with standards of writing and presentation. Like other forms of education, it serves as a means of training. Its purpose is to enable students to acquire the appropriate methodology for synthesis and to demonstrate their mastery of activities and resources related to their research topic. The support and guidance of students during this period is essential, through regular exchanges between the student and their research supervisor to address any concerns and provide direction.</p> <p>The evaluation of a dissertation focuses on its various components, including the defence. As such, this assessment, whether written or oral, is a complex task. However, the health situation resulting from the Covid-19 pandemic has forced universities to resort to remote assessment of Master's theses.</p> <p>This paper focuses on the online evaluation of Master's theses, which was an unprecedented experience for most teachers during the Covid-19 period.</p> ZEMOURA Siham, CHERAK Radhia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-26 2023-11-26 60 2 2894 2901 The role of physical and athletic education in alleviating anxiety among adolescents <p>The aim of the study was to identify the role of physical education and sports in alleviating anxiety among adolescents<br>because the anxiety is highlighted by the intensity of adolescence, which in turn is considered one of the most important stages in<br>the life of the individual and was our choice of this subject due to what we observed from the excesses and psychological<br>problems of adolescents In the secondary stage and so we tried to study on some of the secondary Chlef and the number of<br>students 238 practitioners of physical and sports education and 63 non-practitioners of physical education and sports, is 10% of<br>the community research The sample was chosen deliberately and used the descriptive method and to collect study data And the<br>achievement of its goals have been used to measure anxiety Cattell translation of Mohammed Hussein Allawi.<br>The results were as follows:<br>- There are statistically significant differences in the degree of anxiety among adolescents who practice and are not practicing<br>physical and athletic education.<br>- Practitioners of physical education and sports education are characterized by a lower degree of anxiety in comparison with their<br>non-practicing children of physical and athletic education.</p> Faiza BOUGHALIA, Soufiane MAHI, Abdellah LAMECHE Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 60 2 2902 2911 A new vision in the miraculous arrangement of the Holy Quran according to "Ayman Eid Al-Rawajfah" - the theory of symmetry as a model – <p>Ayman Eid Al-Rawajfah from Tafila Technical University in Jordan is one of the contemporary researchers who delve into the field of miracles and Quranic and linguistic studies. His research in this field is considered original and reference. Because it carries new ideas and opinions, which can reach the point of being considered theories, through which he tried to link between science and literature, and his book “Bridging between Literature and Sciences: The Theory of Groups (Group) and Symmetry in the Holy Qur’an” is the best evidence of that. And we will focus in this study on one the theories he put forward are "the theory of symmetry in the Holy Qur'an".</p> GHOUL CHAHRAZED, BENABED MOKHTARIA Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-29 2023-11-29 60 2 2912 2930 Applications of analyzing paragraphs of psychological and cognitive tests using the coefficients of difficulty and discrimination and their role in strengthening and stability <p>The research paper aims to identify the methods of analyzing paragraphs of psychological and cognitive tests, where we focused on clarifying the methods of calculating the difficulty level and its degree of discrimination, and their significance between the higher and lower levels in the trait or ability measured by the test. In light of a specific internal or external test, the purpose of paragraph analysis is to improve the degree of sincerity and reliability of the total test, in addition to knowing the good sequence of paragraphs.</p> Rafahiya Bouchareb, Kadri Abdelhafid , Trifa Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-29 2023-11-29 60 2 2931 2945 The Role of Human Resources Management in Reducing Organizational Conflict -Case Study of the Skikda Port Corporation- <p>This research paper aims to determine the appropriate combination of human resources management elements represented by (recruitment, planning, selection, and training). The Skikda Port Corporation was chosen to diagnose the reality of applying that combination and the extent of the role it plays in reducing organizational conflict. The results were relied upon to analyze The questionnaire was distributed to the study sample to determine the relationship between human resources information systems and organizational conflict to come up with a set of recommendations</p> Boudjaada Lyes , Nettour Bilel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-29 2023-11-29 60 2 2946 2970 The Literature of Muhammad al-Bashir al-Ibrahimi: Between Resistance and Reformist Vision <p>Al-Ibrahimi is considered one of the scholars of the nation whose scholarly, cultural, and literary efforts are not to be underestimated, not only in Algeria but throughout the Arab world. His multifaceted personality earned him recognition beyond borders, with colonial powers acknowledging his intellectual jihad as a formidable force, revitalizing aspirations and awakening the revolutionary spirit among Arabs. His resistance to the French colonization of Algeria contributed to the creation of an enlightened and responsible nation, confidently outlining his national objectives.</p> Dr. Noura Haddi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-29 2023-11-29 60 2 2971 2984 The role of physical and athletic education in alleviating anxiety among adolescents <p>The aim of the study was to identify the role of physical education and sports in alleviating anxiety among adolescents because the anxiety is highlighted by the intensity of adolescence, which in turn is considered one of the most important stages in the life of the individual and was our choice of this subject due to what we observed from the excesses and psychological problems of adolescents In the secondary stage and so we tried to study on some of the secondary Chlef and the number of students 238 practitioners of physical and sports education and 63 non-practitioners of physical education and sports, is 10% of the community research The sample was chosen deliberately and used the descriptive method and to collect study data And the achievement of its goals have been used to measure anxiety Cattell translation of Mohammed Hussein Allawi.</p> <p>The results were as follows:</p> <p>- There are statistically significant differences in the degree of anxiety among adolescents who practice and are not practicing physical and athletic education.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>- Practitioners of physical education and sports education are characterized by a lower degree of anxiety in comparison with their non-practicing children of physical and athletic education</p> Faiza BOUGHALIA, Soufiane MAHI, Abdellah LAMECHE Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 60 2 2985 2994 Digital libraries and their applications in the Arab world: Uses, Challenges and Solutions <p>This work deals with a very important topic, which is the uses of the digital library in the Arab countries and the role it has become in the field of scientific research, especially since the world is witnessing today a great revolution in the field of information and communication technologies that it has never known before. In its first part, we will discuss the most important definitions of the concept of the digital library and the reasons for the researcher's use of this type of library and the facilities it provides to him. The second part of the work will present the most important challenges facing the use and spread of these libraries in the Arab world and their impact on both research and researchers.</p> Dr. Benferhat ghezala Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 60 2 2995 3006 Human rights in the Madinah document and international conventions - a comparative study <p>The document of the city included human rights as the first global declaration of human rights, guaranteeing the organization of relations between Muslims among themselves and Muslims with others. This relationship is reflected in the expression of rights and duties for each party, whether Muslims or Jews. The document of the city is a historical constitutional document that was established in the first year of migration, 622 CE, in the city of Madinah. It is the first political, social, and legal document established in Islam. The document includes 52 articles that regulate the relations between Muslims and Jews in the city of Madinah. It includes rights and duties for both parties. The document addressed the rights of Muslims and mentioned the freedom of belief and the practice of religious rituals, equality before the law, the right to self-defense, and the protection of family and property. The English translation for the provided Arabic sentences is:"The right to participate in political, economic, and social life, as for the duties of Muslims, they are represented by adherence to the provisions of Islamic law, defending the city of Medina against any aggression, paying Zakat, and participating in Jihad, justice, and mercy in dealing with others."</p> Professor Hafsi abbas Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 60 2 3007 3015 Poetics of the thresholds in the novel "Bab El Tabachir" by Ahmed Saadawi <p>This study is concerned with the approach of the textual thresholds in the novel&nbsp; " Bab El Tabachir " by Ahmed al-Saadawi, as elements surrounding the narrative text and contribute to the formation of its speech, and this research is limited&nbsp; to the basic thresholds, as they indicate several meanings and connotations related to the content of the novel, and contribute achieving aesthetics and encourage the recipient to read, enticing sometimes and provoking other. There are tools used by the novelist to attract attention and other&nbsp; goals that are formed to complete&nbsp; each other, and relate to the narrative text to add and pave the way to enter&nbsp; world</p> Fouzia Gafsi, Abdelwaheb Bouima Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 60 2 3016 3023 Analysis of the management of public equipment programs for local communities and their impact on local development <p>This study aimed to identify the contributions of the Arab researcher in light of the health crisis in the world caused by the spread of the Corona virus, by analyzing the volume of his scientific publication and knowing the most important topics he addressed in his thesis. The research and specializations that enjoyed its publication, as 238 articles published in the Arabic language were analyzed. It represents the size of the study sample, as it relied on content analysis.</p> BenabdeLaziz Samir, Naima Said Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 60 2 3024 3049 Digital transformation and its role in achieving the effectiveness of strategic foresight in the organization <p>The study aims to shed light on digital transformation and its role in achieving the effectiveness of strategic foresight in the service institutions under study.</p> <p>This is done by researching the nature of the relationship between digital transformation through its dimensions (environmental examination, information processing methods, organizational culture) and the effectiveness of strategic foresight through its indicators (use of digital technologies, digital strategy, network relations, digital culture) from the point of view of employees of service institutions. Place of study.</p> <p>The study data was collected from (68) employees using a questionnaire that included (54) items.</p> <p>The study adopted descriptive statistics methods to determine the strength of the study variables, and parametric inferential statistics methods to test its hypotheses. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program was used for statistical analysis of the data.</p> <p>The study concluded that there is a statistically significant effect of digital transformation in achieving the effectiveness of strategic foresight in the institutions under study.</p> Dr. HADDADI Abedelghani, Dr. BROUKI Abderahmen Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 60 2 3050 3062 Using artificial networks to predict Algerian oil prices (Saharan Blend) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study explores the efficacy of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in forecasting monthly crude oil prices. Utilizing data from January 1990 to August 2023, an ANN model was developed and trained to predict future values. The results were promising, showing a strong correlation with actual prices and underscoring the potential of ANNs in financial forecasting. The research indicates that machine learning can significantly contribute to the predictive analytics in the energy market, offering a valuable tool for economic and strategic planning.</p> Hadj Kouider Abdelhadi, Benlaria Ahmed, Baghafar Abdelkader Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 60 2 3063 3070 The tourist function of the city and its impact on economic development <p>The city with all its components and stages of development is one of the basic and important elements of the process of tourist attraction, especially with the emergence of the latter as a huge sector and depends on it in economic development and the introduction of hard currency in the event that strategies are developed to exploit the city considering tourism as the mirror reflecting the level of development in the city and life inside it, and this led to the pursuit of the development of cities, especially in major countries to ensure the performance of its tourist function entrusted to it and include it in the development strategies of the state treasury and achieve A stand-alone investment in tourism within cities and through this research paper we will try to highlight the function that the city offers to the tourism sector and the resulting impact on economic development&nbsp;</p> Atallah Naoui, Tayeb Maache Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 60 2 3071 3091 Modesty and its Spiritual Dimensions and its Role in the Formation of the Muslim Personality in the Light of the Prophetic Tradition. <p>It is noticeable in these days that Islamic ethics are experiencing a noticeable decline, especially with the widespread use of modern means of communication. One of the most important virtues lacking among people is the virtue of modesty. This noble quality is mentioned in the prophetic tradition, where it is described as a branch of faith, its companion, and that it brings only good. It is a characteristic that distinguishes the Islamic religion. These noble descriptions of modesty have important spiritual dimensions that help guide the behaviour of the individual Muslim and build a balanced Muslim personality.</p> Assia Alloui, Benhama Abderraouf Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 60 2 3092 3109 PROFESSIONAL REQUIREMENTS AS THE SOURCE OF PERCEIVEDSTRESS AMONG WORKERS IN THE BEJAIA PROVINCE <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study delves into the exploration of professional requirements and their relationship with stress among workers, highlighting aspects such as level of qualification, creativity, job monotony, recognition at work, decision latitude, and social and professional support. The results emphasize the significant influence of these factors on workers' stress perception. Excessive qualification, lack of recognition, monotonous workload, and limited autonomy are identified as potential sources of stress. In contrast, creativity, as well as social support from superiors and colleagues, are associated with reduced occupational stress. These findings provide valuable insights to guide workplace stress management strategies, underscoring the importance of recognizing and promoting working conditions conducive to creativity and social support.</p> MERADI Ouari, KANDI Nabil, KIROUANI Lyes Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 60 2 3110 3121