Leadership System of Adat Perpatih In Malaysia As A Model of Consensus and Democracy Concept: An Analytical Study

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Mualimin Mochammad Sahid, Mohammad Chaedar, Baidar Mohammed Mohammed Hasan, Fettane Amar


Adat Perpatih is a customary practice among people in Malaysia, especially Negeri Sembilan state. It is an unwritten custom that has been inherited for generations since 17th century and is practiced to this day. The custom has become a national cultural heritage that is well preserved, and it becomes the uniqueness of the community in Negeri Sembilan state. The noble values ​​of Adat Perpatih customary practices which clearly guided by Islamic religion and derived from its teachings have been recognized in shaping the social and community values ​​in the country. One of these values is the leadership system which is not only highly regarded for its pure value, but has also been the main reference and the backbone that forms the Council of Rulers (Majlis Raja-Raja) as well as the Constitutional Monarchy system in Malaysia. This article will examine the extent to which the practice of electing leaders in Adat Perpatih practices relates to the concept of consensus and democracy in Islam which is the official religion in Malaysia. The research methodology used in this paper is qualitative research which combined the method of literature review and history of customary origins in order to analyse issues related to Adat Perpatih practices especially in appointing leaders or Kings in Negeri Sembilan state. The results of the study showed that the uniqueness of the leadership concept in Adat Perpatih is very closely related to the existing system practiced in Islam which is well-known as Ijmak and Syura. Therefore, the system of leadership practiced by people of Negeri Sembilan state in their Adat Perpatih since long time ago has been recognized as the best leadership model to emulate.

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