Effects of Exercise Using Hand-squeezing Balls and Freehand-squeezing on Handgrip Strength, Cognitive Function, Balance, and Depression among Older People

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Pirom Leesuwan, Ratchanee Krongrawa, Narinee Yamsakul, Jarasporn Homjandee , Akom Phosuwan


This study was quasi-experimental research aimed at learning about the effects of exercise using hand-squeezing balls and freehand-squeezing on handgrip strength, cognitive function, balance, and depression among older people living at Boek Phrai, Lat Bua Khao, and Krap Yai sub-districts in Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi. The sample group consisted of 150 people obtained for the research project by purposive sampling according to the inclusion criteria. The participants were taught exercise techniques to increase handgrip strength with monthly monitoring for three months. The research instrumentation consisted of handgrip dynamometers, the place of assessment, timed up and go test, a stopwatch, and the Thai version of the Mini-Mental State Examination form (MMSE-Thai 2002), the 2Q and 9Q evaluation forms of the Department of Mental Health, and notebooks for recording activities. Data were collected by the research team and assistants taught by experts. Data were analyzed with handgrip strength analysis by individual with reference to the handgrip strength standards for Thai people by age with frequency distribution in numbers, percentages, pre-test and post-test handgrip strength comparisons using paired t-test, and comparison of differences in handgrip strength among three groups using one-way ANOVA statistics.


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