Psychology and Education Journal <h2><strong>PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION (ISSN: 1553-6939)<br /></strong></h2> <div class="row" style="border: 1px solid grey; padding: 5px; text-align: justify;">Dear Authors and Researchers,<br />We would like to inform you that the U.S. ISSN Center at the Library of Congress has confirmed that the correct ISSN number of the Journal <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> is ISSN 1553-6939. This ISSN is to be used instead of ISSN 0033-3077 which is the ISSN that belongs to the former title, “<strong>Psychology</strong>.” Each time a journal undergoes a major change of title a new ISSN is assigned. <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> also has been assigned a Linking ISSN (ISSN-L). The ISSN-L is available for use when there is a need to identify and link to a continuing resource without regard to format, for example in services such as OpenURL, library catalogues, search engines or knowledge bases. The next issue of <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> will be published with ISSN 1553-6969. But the previous ISSN will be also available in the ISSN Portal to retrieve the record for <strong>Psychology</strong> because it remains the identifier for the former title <strong>Psychology</strong> and the articles published under that title.</div> <div class="row"> <p style="text-align: justify;"> </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Arts and Languages, Humanities, Social Sciences, Management and Economics, Law and Political Sciences, Sports Sciences, Psychology, Education Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, History, Philosophy, Media and Communication, Science and Technology, Engineering.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Psychology and Education</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 1553-6939)</strong> is a quality journal devoted to basic research, theory, and techniques and arts of practice in the general field of psychology and education. <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> is published bimonthly. There are numerous papers on important aspects of psychology and education which can find no place in the professional literature. This journal is dedicated to filling this void.<br />Preparation of manuscripts: In formal aspects, the manuscripts should follow closely the general directions given in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition). EXCEPTIONS: All data in photographs, tables, drawings, figures and graphs must be simplified and stated in the RESULTS section of the paper. All papers must be formatted in MSWord, typed, Times New Roman font #12, double-spaced, with 1 inch margins, and submitted electronically or printed manuscript in original copy. Manuscripts must be accompanied by an abstract of about 70-100 words. The manuscript and abstract should conform to the American Psychological Association Manual Style, 6th Edition.<br />Given the present trends in the publishing industry and to reach the global audience without any restrictions, we have opted to move the journal from subscription-based to Gold open access.<br />A shift in this mode has certain benefits:</p> <ul> <li>Increased usage and citation</li> <li>Easy compliance with institutional and funder mandates</li> <li>Retention of copyright by authors</li> <li>Greater public engagement</li> <li>Faster impact</li> </ul> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Psychology and Education</strong>, the Editor, nor the Board of Editors (individually or collectively), assumes no responsibility for statements of fact or opinion in the papers printed. Authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permissions. Advertising rates supplied on request. Books for review should be sent to the Editor.<br />Articles in <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> are listed in PsycINFO, American Psychological Association (APA), Scopus,, and shared with other websites, and numerous gratis copies are mailed to the Library of Congress, EBSCO subscription services, and universities in developing countries overseas.</p> </div> Psychology and Education en-US Psychology and Education Journal 1553-6939 Organisational support and its relationship with job involvement among Sonatrach employees <p>The aim of this research is to identify the determinants of organisational support and its relationship with job commitment among Sonatrach employees. The researcher followed a descriptive analytical approach, as it is appropriate to the research topic, which is based on studying the reality or phenomenon as it exists in reality, and focuses on describing it accurately to obtain information that answers the research questions without interference from the researcher.</p> <p>The current research found a statistically significant relationship at the 0.05 level of significance between the determinants of organisational support and job commitment among Sonatrach employees with variables such as gender, educational level and years of experience.</p> Djamel Lakhdari, Hachemi MOKRANI Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-14 2024-02-14 61 2 1 28 The Constitutional Court as a supervisory and advisory body under the 2020 constitutional amendment <p>The monitoring the constitutional Law Is considered the invincible bulwark of the legal safety of any country.&nbsp; Not to mention its fundamental character on laying the foundations of the rule of law.&nbsp; On the one hand, the principle of legality is achieved by upholding the Constitution.&nbsp; the monitoring of the constitutionality of laws has become very important in most democratic countries.</p> Yazid Miloud, DR. AKROUM ADEL Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-14 2024-02-14 61 2 29 40 Requirement of the Open Offer, Means to Concretize the Free Competition in the Law no23/12 including the Public Deals. <p>This research paper aims to treat with the problematic of the public deals' conclusion with open offering requirement, and the extent of respecting of the principles of free and fair competition; such as the sufficient publicity, whether before the deals’ conclusion or during this procedure, then to the extent of existing of the guarantees .</p> <p>Thus, the legislator, treats with the problematic of the public deals conclusion with open offering requirement, considering it the important means according to the law 23/12, and he provides the obligatory to publish the deal offering, also he stipulates the publicity during the procedures, moreover, as guarantees, he authorizes the right to reviewing, then all that proceedings are subject to the legal control.</p> CHAIB Bouziane Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-14 2024-02-14 61 2 41 55 The Art of Argumentation in Umayyad Political Poetry: Selected Verses from the Poem 'Al-Kumayt' as a Model of Praise for the Ahl al-Bayt (Family of Prophet Muhammad)" <p>This study aims to explore the key elements of argumentation in poetry from the Umayyad era, with a focus on argumentative tools, repetition, argument scale , and rhetorical methods, with a close analysis of select verses from a poem celebrating the Hashemites by al-Kumayt ibn Zayd, one of the foremost poetic figures who represented the political conflicts between factions in the Umayyad era. As al-Kumayt defended his own party and opposed others, his poems are loaded with numerous arguments that aimed at demonstrating the rightful claim of the family of the Prophet to the caliphate over all others. He was undoubtedly a genius in pure argumentation that derives from his belief and emotional attachment to the love and support of the Hashemites, deserving recognition as a mastermind of political argumentation in poetry</p> Hayat Kebier, Fatiha lalaoui Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-14 2024-02-14 61 2 56 71 The future foresight in pre-Islamic prose <p>Foresight the future was evident among the ancient Arabs in the pre-Islamic era, clearly in the literary heritage, called for looking to the future through different types of prose, a taste of a prosperous tomorrow and a bright future, this outlook had clear connotations in prose to emphasize its role in upholding Arab values and instilling hope and change for what is best for the Arab person. This research touched on foresight the future through the many forms of prose that were most prominent in that era, including rhetoric, wills, and proverbs.</p> Asmaa Mohammed Sahib Maala Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-18 2024-02-18 61 2 72 104 The estimates of professors at the university of Mohamed Lamine Debaghine Setif 2 related to the degree of application of the competency-based teaching approach <p>The current study aimed to identify the estimates of professors at the University of Mohamed Lamine Debaghine Setif -2- related to the degree of application of the competency-based teaching approach, the emergence of which coincided with the reform of higher education and the adoption of the LMD system since 2004. To answer the study hypotheses, the researcher used the descriptive analytical method, and a scale including (36) items divided into three axes, the first one concerned the basic concepts of the adopted pedagogical approach, the second one concerned teaching pedagogies, and the third one concerned the types and tools of evaluation. The scale was applied to a sample consisting of (162) male and female professors from the three faculties of the University of Setif -2-. The study concluded that the professors' estimates were moderate, in addition to the presence of differences in the professors' estimates due to variables of college affiliation and years of seniority, but there were no differences with regard to the variable of academic rank. The study ended with a set of proposals for decision makers, including the process of improving the didactic practices of university professors in light of the adopted approach.</p> Strerrahmane Naima Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 61 2 105 123 Food Security Challenges in Light of Biological Threats: A Case Study of Algeria <p>This paper focuses on the case of Algeria and analyzes the biological challenges affecting its food security. It reviews a wide range of potential biological threats, such as plant diseases, harmful insects, and animal epidemics. The impact of these threats on agricultural production and livestock in Algeria, as well as on the availability and quality of food, is highlighted. In addition to reviewing these threats and their impact on agricultural and food production in Algeria, this paper presents a number of findings and recommendations that can contribute to improving policies to achieve food security and combat biological threats. The discussion also includes the difficulties and challenges faced in implementing these policies and suggestions for enhancing and improving them.</p> Dr. Abderrahmane Fridja Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 61 2 124 139 Separation of children from their parents in the light of jurisprudence and the reality of Muslim minorities <p>This article discusses the issue of separation of children from their parents in some European countries, focusing on the surrounding circumstances that facilitate understanding of the decision for those who qualify for it. Recognising the importance of taking a close look at the rulings regarding Muslim minorities, given the complex challenges faced by this group of Muslims, fatwas (Islamic legal opinions) should contribute to providing rulings that are in line with their reality, while emphasising the principles and rules of Sharia. The research concludes the importance of using jurisprudence of the situation of Muslim minorities in adapting their legal rulings according to the constants and general principles of Sharia.</p> Sekhane Nadia Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-28 2024-02-28 61 2 140 161 Parenting styles and their impact on academic achievement among secondary school students: A field study on a sample of third-year secondary school students in the wilaya of Tizi Ouzou <p style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14.0pt;">The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between parental parenting styles (father's treatment and mother's treatment) and academic achievement among secondary school students through a field study in the Wilaya of Tizi Ouzou. In our study, we employed a descriptive approach on a sample consisting of 50 students, with 30 females and 20 males selected randomly. To grasp the phenomenon under study and contextualise it properly, we relied on Schaefer's Children Report of Parental Behaviour Inventory (1965) and students' grades to gauge academic achievement. The study findings affirmed a statistically significant correlation between parental parenting styles and students' academic achievement.</span></p> MEHALLI Jedjiga Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-28 2024-02-28 61 2 162 172 Impact of the Corona virus (COVID-19) on the distribution of insurance Services. <p>This study aims to identify the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the distribution of insurance services, by displaying various insurance distribution channels, and presenting some of the results achieved before and during the pandemic.</p> <p>The study found that the Covid-19 pandemic significantly affected the insurers went to the e-distribution of insurance services in the world, and It has reduced the insurance activity in Algeria, and the impact of distribution channels was weak because there was no distribution network based on e-distribution.</p> Dr. Tari Abdelkadir, Dr. Ramdan Taouinar, Dr. Yacine Khelouf,Dr. Haddouche Shourouk Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-28 2024-02-28 61 2 173 186 The reality of teaching the rural girl in Algeria facts and numbers <p>This study concluded and revealed the problems that hinder the education of the rural girl, although it represents 50%, but her education is not a priority as it was shown: Preventing parents or a family member of the girl from enrolling in the school and this is due to the distinction between her and the male, and the inferior view of the girl in particular What is related to her education, as you see the researcher of the importance and education of rural women, with the presence of a culture of discrimination between women and men who are still inherent in the countryside, and from it is necessary to give importance to teaching the girl in the Algerian countryside.</p> Djadaoun Zina Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 61 2 187 197 Establishing rules for the purposes of Islamic Sharia in financial transactions (Islamic banking as a model) <p>Scholars were interested in the knowledge of the purposes of Islamic law, ancient and modern, so they sat for it through the interpretations and fatwas that are presented here and there. It was necessary to give the rule of Sharia in it in accordance with the great intentional rule, which we express by the general intent of legislation, which is to bring benefits and repel evils.</p> ZENAGUI FETHI, Tahri Belkheir Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 61 2 198 216 Takaful Insurance Companies between Facing Challenges and Success Factors in Algeria after the issuance of Executive Decree 21-81 <p>This research paper aims to identify the most important internal and external challenges facing Takaful insurance companies in Algeria, which were established after the issuance of Executive Decree No 21-81 issued on 02/28/2021.</p> <p>And to highlight the success factors that the latter should rely on in facing challenges, which is represented in building a clear strategy through which it seeks to achieve its goals by relying on modern technological means, and is based on the principles of transparency to win the trust of customers through reports issued by its management.</p> Dr. MEKHLOUF MOHAMED, Dr. BELHADIA AMAR Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 61 2 217 232 The Relationship Between the Development of Cognitive Symbolic Representation and Academic Achievement Among Baccalaureate Students During Physical Education and Sports Classes: A Field Study in Some High Schools in the State of Annaba, Algeria <p><strong>Developing of the cognitive symbolic representation ( cognitive side ) during the physical education and sports class is one of the professor's goals according to Bloom’s classification wich is approved in the curriculum and academic subject within educational institutions concerned with the academic achievement of learners, especially the secondary school ( baccalaureate students).</strong></p> Boutoutane Hadjer, Djairene Hamza, Mefti Abdelmounaim, Messaoudi Tahar, Selami Khedidja Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 61 2 233 242 The abstract and the concrete in social scientific research: A methodological and analytical approach to operational steps <p>In this article, we tried to investigate the operational procedures for moving social scientific research from the extreme of abstraction to the extreme of the concrete, with a description of the methods of grading the steps of dismantling theoretical wholes to reach the details of the empirically observed reality, by deconstructing the abstract concepts of formulated hypotheses into dimensions and partial dimensions if necessary. In addition to methods for extracting indicators and evidence for each dimension in order to approach tangible reality and make it subject to observation, measurement, and statistical testing to reach a realistic scientific interpretation of the studied phenomenon.</p> Ameziane Naima, Bellakhdar Mohammed Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 61 2 243 261 The financial statements consolidation according to the financial accounting system and their compatibility with the requirements of the entity theory -Saidal group case- <p>This study aims to clarify the extent of compliance with the requirements of the entity theory when preparing the consolidated financial statements according to the financial accounting system.</p> <p>The study concluded that the theory followed in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements is a mixture between the entity theory in accounting disclosure requirements and accounting treatments for inter-operations and the ownership theory in the process of merging assets of subsidiaries and joint arrangements based on book values.</p> Berrou Khireddine Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 61 2 262 277 The Contemporary Novel Achievement: Current Transformations and Cultural Changes <p>The contemporary novel has emerged as one of the foremost arts that explores social, political, and even religious phenomena. It is a genre of progress that has entered the realm of renewal, and has become vastly dissimilar from classic narratives, defiantly rejecting traditional forms. It has challenged the three taboos of religion, politics, and sexuality, and presented issues of nation, society, and identity. Novelists have crafted cohesive systems that explore the observable world; allowing the reader to make their own understanding. Based on the above, we will try to present a reading of contemporary novel achievement and current transformations, and how these texts have changed the reality</p> Dr. ATTIA Nesrine, Prof. KANTAOUI Mohammed Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 61 2 278 292 THE IMPACT OF OIL PRICE VOLATILITY IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET ON ECONOMIC GROWTH UNDER ALGERIA'S FISCAL POLICIES: A ECONOMETRIC STUDY FOR THE PERIOD 1970-2020 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This paper aims to highlight the impact of oil price fluctuations on economic growth in Algeria for the period 1970-2020 in light of the fiscal policy pursued, using the ARDL model, and based on the analysis of the model results, it was found that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between oil prices and economic growth in Algeria with an estimated elasticity of 9.93% and this result corresponds to the specificity of the Algerian economy being a rentier country dependent on oil revenues, which helped provide the necessary funding for public investment supervised by the government in implementing its mega projects, which reflects positively on economic growth rates.</p> Boukherbache Haroune Erachid, Rezki Wail Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 61 2 293 305 The manifistations of the folklore in the novel of the bleeding stones <p>The folklore is considered as a long track record of different performing arts which were inherited by many generations over time. It is derived from people's life as it is a mean of communication between communities and it covers people' lifestyles in the past, their stories, proverbs, past habits and traditions.</p> <p>The folklore can be seen today in familial celebrations and events since it's very important for them. Therefore it is then a criss crossed world of inherited sayings and behaviours through history. The folklore also shows us different cultural aspects which reflects intellectual dimensions and it is considered as the mirror which reflects also societies' real life. In addition it proves social identity as it helps the society to keep its traditions that are clearly shown in people ' behaviours and social values.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Abdelkabir Souhila Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 61 2 306 320 One of the issues of the nominal sentence in Arabic grammar <p>This article aims to study a specific type of the nominal sentence, which is the type that contains a subject that has the subject takes place of the predicate , by referring to what was mentioned by elkhalil and Sibawayeh regarding it. The two approaches adopted here are the historical and descriptive. We went back to what elkhalil and Sibawayeh mentioned in the matter, and we found the matter with them merely by providing the news and delaying the beginning.</p> <p>As for the middle el akhfach, it is different from elkhalil and Sibawayeh, and he poses a methodological problem, as he produced a sentence that is neither in nominal terms nor actually. Neither is it nominal because its second corner is an actor, and the subject is one of the pillars of the actual sentence, nor is it actual because its first corner is a beginner, and the initiator is one of the pillars of the nominal sentence. We concluded at the end of the research that the opinion of elkhalil and Sibawayeh was correct.</p> Hadjadj Mustapha Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 61 2 321 335 The Role of Direct Marketing on Customer Satisfaction at Djezzy Company -Djelfa-Algeria- <p>The study aimed to identify the role of direct marketing on customer satisfaction at the communication institutions, that's why direct marketing was selected (Direct Mail, Internet, Catalogue, Telephone) as a separate variable, while customer satisfaction has been selected as a subordinate variable, in order to achieve the objectives of the study, the identification was designed and distributed to (221) customers, (195) were returned, (181) were analytical identification, the research community covered Djezzy’s customers. The study concluded:</p> <p>- There is a statistically significant relationship between direct marketing dimensions and customer satisfaction.</p> <p>- There are no statistically significant moral differences for both direct marketing and customer satisfaction due to personal data.</p> <p>It was also concluded that it is necessary for Djezzy company to pay attention to direct marketing tools and constantly strive to gain the satisfaction of its customers.</p> Dahmane Ahmed, Rabehi Imane Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 61 2 336 349 The art of making Arabic manuscripts; Origins, development and importance <p>Muslims have long produced a huge scientific product of books, some of which came in the form of hundreds of thousands of manuscripts which were the only way to preserve what was produced by the Muslim mind and made precious art. Which the Muslims have compared to their times and their ages, on the one hand, and on the other, showed us the great progress made by Muslims in the art of the manuscript industry, which was a widespread industry at the time.</p> Ali Boutchich, Mohamed Ayache Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 61 2 350 365 The effects of globalization on human resource management and ways to confront it <p>Withthe third millenniumand its containing,political, economic,socialvariables thehumanity entered in new eracalledthe era ofglobalization, whichcarries with it thedimensionsandvariables ofthe sameeffectsin all aspects oflife, and the effects of globalizationis not limited on theorganizations,but rather extended tocontribute to therestructuring of thehuman resources</p> <p>The human resources as the backbone of any successful organization in achieving its objectives, this requires them to shift to a strategic approach in its work and adopt programs to training and development of human resources, and requires them to also review in the laws and regulations of legislation of human resources, and development of education training system and work to reduce of the skills gap and to consider the development of human resources at the forefront of priorities, the reality of contemporary societies and impose strongly the importance of human resources as an essential element in the evolution of organizations and communities</p> <p>Clear to us the importance of attention by this function in the organization so it was the duty of the human resources management to put different principles, and policies to organize the functional life of this element and how to deal with, and benefit from it as much as possible.</p> Saad Guermeche Zohra, Ammari Samir, Raki Ahcene ,Boudjaada Lyes Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 61 2 366 380 Violence in schools, Causal factors and manifested effects- Socio-psychological approach – <p>The phenomenon of school violence is one of the serious social ills that have become a threat The entity of societies, which has grown terribly in recent years in various countries Our educational institutions, whose primary goal is supposed to be education and upbringing Generations on good principles and high morals, and instilling authentic values Filled with the teachings of our true religion, and correcting their behavior. Unfortunately, it has become A mediator of violence in all its forms (psychological, moral, physical...) and between all parties The educational process (students, teachers, administrators). As it is considered abnormal behavior, due to the psychological and social damage it causes, Educational... In this simple intervention, we wanted to shed light on this scourge. So that we can monitor its causes, manifestations, forms and effects.</p> Dr.TOUMI HANANE Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 61 2 381 399