Psychology and Education Journal <h2><strong>PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION (ISSN: 1553-6939)<br /></strong></h2> <div class="row" style="border: 1px solid grey; padding: 5px; text-align: justify;">Dear Authors and Researchers,<br />We would like to inform you that the U.S. ISSN Center at the Library of Congress has confirmed that the correct ISSN number of the Journal <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> is ISSN 1553-6939. This ISSN is to be used instead of ISSN 0033-3077 which is the ISSN that belongs to the former title, “<strong>Psychology</strong>.” Each time a journal undergoes a major change of title a new ISSN is assigned. <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> also has been assigned a Linking ISSN (ISSN-L). The ISSN-L is available for use when there is a need to identify and link to a continuing resource without regard to format, for example in services such as OpenURL, library catalogues, search engines or knowledge bases. 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But the previous ISSN will be also available in the ISSN Portal to retrieve the record for <strong>Psychology</strong> because it remains the identifier for the former title <strong>Psychology</strong> and the articles published under that title.</div> <div class="row"> <p style="text-align: justify;"> </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Arts and Languages, Humanities, Social Sciences, Management and Economics, Law and Political Sciences, Sports Sciences, Psychology, Education Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, History, Philosophy, Media and Communication, Science and Technology, Engineering.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Psychology and Education</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 1553-6939)</strong> is a quality journal devoted to basic research, theory, and techniques and arts of practice in the general field of psychology and education. <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> is published bimonthly. 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Books for review should be sent to the Editor.<br />Articles in <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> are listed in PsycINFO, American Psychological Association (APA), Scopus,, and shared with other websites, and numerous gratis copies are mailed to the Library of Congress, EBSCO subscription services, and universities in developing countries overseas.</p> </div> Psychology and Education en-US Psychology and Education Journal 1553-6939 Hermeneutics between the epistemological foundation and the ontological foundation <p>This article aims to shed light on the hermeneutic project of both Wilhelm Dilthey and Hans Gadamer, and to clarify the most important common things between them, Hermeneutics has its roots in the depths of the ancient past, and it has passed through multiple phases through the successive stages of history, and its concept differed from one stage to another and according to the different starting points of philosophers.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; What is worth mentioning in this regard is that interpretation according to Dilthey is considered a basic and effective approach to get out of the method crisis in the humanities and rise to the science class, and to refute any metaphysical vision in understanding the human phenomenon that is inseparable from man.&nbsp;&nbsp; Gadamer was seeking to establish a universal interpretive philosophy, which includes an explicit call for the universality of interpretive practice through language as the home of existence and the mediator for the interaction of the ego with the other, which means that its essence is dialogue and not collision between various civilizations and cultures.</p> Laroussi Nadia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 60 2 1 21 Cultural diversity and non-violence Content analysis for the first year of the civic education textbook <p class="Normal1" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">The aim of this study is to shed light on the axis marked by multiculturalism and its role in establishing a culture of peace, for the first-year intermediate civic education textbook, from the standpoint that the school and the textbook are the basic base for building culture and behavior in general for the student.</span></p> <p class="Normal1" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">As the school is among the most important institutions of socialization that contribute to the development and development of the mental faculty of the individual as well as the acquisition of knowledge, it also helps him in the correct social integration in accordance with recognized social values.</span></p> <p class="Normal1" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">In this study, we also relied on the content analysis technique of the aforementioned axis, through units and categories that achieve the objectives set in the school program on the one hand, in addition to the most important international principles aimed at consolidating a culture of peace and coexistence on the other hand.</span></p> Elmahi Leyla, Benkhira Mohammed Elamin Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 60 2 22 32 German orientalists’ perspectives on issues of pre-Islamic poetry - imaginary and imagination <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Scholars from diverse groups, ideologies, and languages focused on pre-Islamic poetry, studied and critiqued it, then utilized its various issues as a starting point for numerous Arab and Western research. This latter group made a concerted effort to examine this legacy, and as a result, two perspectives emerged: one is in favor of its existence, and the other is opposed to it.</p> <p>The German Orientalist School, which focused on the study of pre-Islamic poetry, is one of these tendencies. While some of their research supported the existence of classical Arabic poetry, others cast doubt on it. Due to its significance for understanding and investigating our heritage, we will attempt to present and critique the many viewpoints in order to highlight the characteristics of German Orientalism and its perspective on the problems with Arabic literature. Its significance also comes from highlighting the fundamental contrast between the Arabs' perspective on our heritage and other people's attitudes about it.</p> Dr. Samia Kaaelkef Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 60 2 33 47 Ego dialectic, the other between the linguistic lesson and the psychological depth <p>Since language and literature cannot be detached from the psychological aspect, and we will not exaggerate if we say that it is the translation and expression of that sentence of feelings, emotions, impulses, and psychological impulses inherent in the human soul, it is not surprising that this close and deep-rooted relationship has been the focus of attention, study, and research of psychological or linguistic researchers, in order to reach these hidden links between the different souls and within them, and between their expressions and pronunciations, Through this we can uncover the secrets of the human self by deciphering symbolism and analyzing the psychological depth behind its writings and writings in its linguistic and literary heritage in general, So our research paper under the title " Ego dialectic, the other between the linguistic lesson and the psychological depth" It's a modest contribution to showing this relationship, and enriching the psychological linguistic studies that build, and address the problems of our reality Biscecolinguism, through an analytical reading of the official and popular texts.</p> Dr. Kamel Benalia, Dr. Yahia Zarga Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 60 2 48 60 The problem of achieving economic stability by examining the relationship between the three: inflation, unemployment, and economic growth <p>This study aimed to identify the relationship between inflation, unemployment and economic growth in Algeria during the period 1991-2019, by addressing some of the previous studies, using the descriptive method in addition to the experimental method in measuring this relationship using the VAR methodology, and The study concluded that there is a direct, significant, causal relationship between the variables of the study in the Algerian economy during the period 1991 - 2019 that contribute to achieving a balance that translates economic stability in the country through increasing growth rates and reducing both unemployment and inflation, in addition to the absence of a joint integration relationship between them.</p> Mahfoud Handaoui, Fairouz Cherayett Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 60 2 61 79 Visual Intelligence and its Relationship to Cognitive Preference in Science Among Intermediate School Students <p>The objective of this study is to identify the level of visual intelligence and its relationship to cognitive preference in science among intermediate school students. The current research was limited to a sample consisting of (150) in the governmental day schools affiliated to the Directorate of Education of Diwaniyah from the morning study. for the academic year (2022-2023), they were deliberately selected, and based on a proportional distribution. The researcher used the descriptive correlational research method, and to achieve the goals of the research, the researcher prepared two tools, the first tool (visual intelligence test), which in its final form consists of (15) items of the type (multiple choice) with three alternatives, The apparent validity and validity of the content were verified, and the difficulty coefficient, the discrimination coefficient, and the effectiveness of the alternatives for the objective items were extracted, and the stability of the test items was found using the internal consistency method (alpha-Cronbach coefficient). It reached (0.80), and the second tool (cognitive preference scale), which in its final form consists of (18) items distributed equally with three alternatives (always-sometimes-rarely) on the domains, namely:</p> <p>The capacity for retention, meaning, linking, derivation, synthesis, the property of multiple modes of cognitive representation, and its apparent validity and constructive validity were verified, and the discriminatory powers of its paragraphs, and its stability was calculated using the internal consistency method (alpha-Cronbach coefficient), as the stability coefficient reached (0.77), The psychometric properties of the paragraphs of the two scales were confirmed to be ready for the final application, and the statistical bag for social sciences (SPSS) was used in data processing, and the research found a correlation between visual intelligence and cognitive preference</p> Zaid Shaheed Al-Aboudi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-03 2023-04-03 60 2 80 106 Design a test to measure the perception of children aged 3 to 4 years <p>Cognition is a psychological process that contributes to the meaning and significance of objects, people, and situations that an individual deals with by organizing, interpreting, and formulating sensory stimuli in meaningful ways. The researcher envisaged building a test to measure and evaluate the cognitive process in children (03–04 years old) that was valid in the local environment and would be a tool for the specialists to appropriately diagnose cognitive disorders and problems in children. Furthermore, to provide an Algerian measuring tool, geared to the Algerian environment, while acknowledging the scarcity of the scientific field in this field and the use of this tool by specialists in the diagnosis and assessment of the cognitive side of children to ensure more efficient use. Building a comprehensive and reliable scale of assessment of cognitive function in a child&nbsp; (03 to 04 years). Is based on a sound approach, and the reliability and reliability of the contents of the results make it a reliable tool that would be an addition to the Algerian researcher and specialist. The test was applied to 90 cases of kindergarten children in Blida</p> Boulasnam karima, Prof. Dr.Rakza Samira Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-15 2023-04-15 60 2 107 123 The duality of physical activity and air pollution; What is the effect of air pollution on practitioners' health? <p>Many governments, organization, such as the World Health Organization, and scientists, are working on planning to raise the level of public health, and to combat many diseases that raise the death rate, by reducing the negative effects of air pollution, and increasing the level of physical activity that improves physical fitness and prevents many chronic non-communicable diseases. According to the current literature, researchers faced a dilemma related to physical activity during air pollution: "Does air pollution negate the benefits of physical activity?" The researchers differed in answering this question, but the majority indicated that air pollution does not negate the health benefits of physical activity, which prompted us to prepare this research paper to look at this dilemma by knowing physical activity, air pollution, and then linking physical activity during air pollution.</p> Mourad Hadj Ahmed, Mohamed Bougherbi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-15 2023-04-15 60 2 124 136 The effect of sports digital communication on the most important emotional determinants and some female students' volleyball skills <p>The purpose of this paper is to preparing a curriculum according to digital mathematical communication, and identifying the effect of sports digital communication on the most important emotional determinants and some female students' volleyball skills. The experimental approach was used in the experimental design of one experimental group (experimental). The research community was determined on (16) female students from the fourth stage in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Kufa for the academic year 2022-2023, (5) female students were chosen to conduct the exploratory experiment on them, and a whole community was chosen to apply the main experiment. One of the most important results reached by the researcher is that : Use of the curriculum according to a sports digital communication program had a positive impact on the most important emotional determinants and some female students' volleyball skills ,and use of the curriculum according to a program for sports digital communication is better than the used method that affected the emotional determinants and some of the students' volleyball skills. One of the most important recommendations recommended by the researchers is that&nbsp; : Adopting the curriculum according to a sports digital communication program because of its positive impact on the most important emotional determinants and some female students’ volleyball skills.</p> Lec. Zamn Turki Hashem , Assist. Lec. Rana Hussein Abdel-Sada , Assist. Prof. Dr. Ayman Hani Al-Jubouri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-24 2023-04-24 60 2 137 149 Computational thinking according to sensory modeling among university students <p>The current research aims to identify: -</p> <p>Computational thinking according to sensory modeling among university students. To achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher followed the descriptive approach. This required the provision of two research tools, the first to measure computer thinking and the second to measure sensory modeling. The researcher verified their validity after presenting them to a group of arbitrators. The researcher selected ( 378 ) male and female students appointed for the research and used the following statistical means: (Pearson correlation coefficient, excellence equation, t-test for two independent samples and the researcher reached several results:</p> <p>- University students (research sample) have a level of computational thinking.</p> <p>- The university students (the research sample) have a level of sensory modeling.</p> <p>Based on these results, the researcher came up with a number of&nbsp; conclusions, recommendations and proposals .</p> Ahmed hamzah kadhim atei AL fatlawi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-06 2023-05-06 60 2 150 173 Physical activity among women - a comparative study- <p>This study aimed to identify women’s physical activity level and compare it according to several variables by following a descriptive approach. and involving 114 women.&nbsp; A Questionnaire of physical activity level of El houzaa 2014 was used to collect data. The results showed that women are not active enough. The comparative results proved that there are statistically significant differences in the activity level in terms of health status, age, income and job. In light of these results, the researchers recommend the need to provide places for exercise in line with Algerian society values ​​and principles, raising women’s awareness about the need of <a href="">practicing sport and avoiding inactivity, women’s awareness of the importance of physical and sport activity in general because of its benefits on physical and psychological health.</a></p> Dr.Nacerbey Karima, Dr.Makhlouf Hasna, Dr.Guezgouz Fatah, Dr.Boudissa Lamia, Dr.Bellila Zakarya, Phd.Baghdadi Mohamed, Phd.Farah Khaled Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-06 2023-05-06 60 2 174 185 The relationship of government spending to economic growth in Algeria during the period 1967-2021 - The validity of Keynes' hypothesis or Wagner's law <p>The study aimed to test the extent and knowledge of the direction and nature of the relationship between government spending and economic growth in Algeria during the period between 1967-2021, and thus to test the extent to which the relationship corresponds to Wagner's law on the one hand or Keynes' hypothesis on the other hand. The cointegration test was relied upon to reveal the existence of a cointegration relationship between the variables of the study, and the Todayamamoto causation was used to determine the direction of the relationship between government spending and economic growth in Algeria and which of them causes the other to occur. The results of the Johanson test showed that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between government spending and economic growth during the period studied, the results of the Toda-Yamamoto causality test (TYDL) also indicated that there is a reciprocal causal relationship between government spending and economic growth in Algeria. In other words, government spending causes economic growth, and vice versa, and this confirms that both Wagner's law and Keynes' hypothesis are valid for studying the relationship between government spending and economic growth in Algeria during the period 1967-2021.</p> Hacene Bouamra, Noura Boualleg, Bouamra Ahmed, Brahem Ismail Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-06 2023-05-06 60 2 186 196 Linguistic stylistics and the question of method <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This article examines the methodological and epistemological relationship between stylistics as a critical theory, and linguistics as a linguistic theory, trying to elucidate the conceptual relationship that unites them, on one hand, their cognitive interaction under the guise of interdependence, on the other hand, their methodological difference under the cover of specialization. This article also attempts to explore the two disciplines in depth by discussing linguistic stylistics and its scope in contemporary linguistic and critical studies</p> Khadir Abderrahman, Nourelhouda Bekai Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-06 2023-05-06 60 2 197 219 Strategic diagnosis of Almarai Company <p>This study aimed to the strategic diagnosis of Almarai Company, as one of the leading companies in the food products industry. We have used the swot model of analysis, focusing on job analysis and Porter's five competitive forces model has been relied on, to identify opportunities that the organization can exploit and threats that should be avoided compared to competitors. The company's and competitor’s website were used to collect data as well as some electronic articles and annual report. We concluded that Almarai practice a vertical diversification and integration strategy as well as an acquisition strategy to increase the size of the company and provide ways to ensure the supply of raw materials and marketing products.</p> Fairouz Chine,Selami Khadidja, Noual Chine,Messaoudi Tahar,Trifa Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-06 2023-05-06 60 2 220 231 The effect of special exercises for a proposed device in improving some bio-kinetic variables and learning the performance of the Arabic jump skill on the floor mat device in artistic gymnastics for female students <p>Using a proposed device to learn the skill of the Arabic jump on the floor movement carpet device in artistic gymnastics.</p> <p><strong>The search problem:</strong> Through the presence of researchers as two teachers Observers of this sport in the gymnastics hall noticed that there is a difficulty in the students’ performance of the skill of the Arabic jump on the device . The rug of the earth's movements, according to the opinion of the researchers The reason for this is that skills are taught with the lack of assistive devices, as well as the lack of use of these devices in exercises according to bio variables. Kinematic, although it facilitates the learning process for these skills and works to shorten the time and effort in the learning process and enables the removal of difficulties encountered by the students during performance and helps in the process of diagnosing that performance as well as the use of devices increases the learner's desire and appetite for learning and enjoyment during performance . To study this problem through preparing special exercises using a proposed device to work on overcoming these difficulties and eliminating the weaknesses of the students while providing time and effort .</p> Assist. Prof. Dr. Wael Abbas Abdulhussein , Lec. Dr. Muntadher Mohammed Ali ,Zahraa Salah Abd Ali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-08 2023-05-08 60 2 232 245 Narrative Techniques in Al-Maqqari Al-Tilmisani 's Nafh al-Tib min Ghusn al-Andalus al-Ratib <p><em>The present paper deals with&nbsp; one of the most important Islamic &nbsp;writers , Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Al-Maqqari&nbsp; Al-Tilmisani and his&nbsp; narrative techniques used in his book &nbsp;Nafh al-Tib min Ghusn al-Andalus al-Ratib and Thaker Waserha Lasan Al Deen&nbsp; Bin Al Khateeb&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; .&nbsp; Nafh al-Tib min Ghusn al-Andalus al-Ratib&nbsp;&nbsp; is a book by a historian of a unique type&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; who sought&nbsp; to depict &nbsp;&nbsp;Andalusian &nbsp;&nbsp;culture as a unique culture&nbsp; .</em> <em>Al-Muqari divided his book into sections and sub-sections&nbsp; compatible with each other . He divided it into two main sections: the first concerns Andalusia and its news, and it has eight sub -sections . While&nbsp; the second section allocated it to introduce Lisan Al-Din Ibn Al-Khatib&nbsp; his&nbsp; news and the conditions of the scholars who touched on their mention. The paper comes to&nbsp; focus on the historical narratives as used as special technique in this book .&nbsp;&nbsp; In this book ,&nbsp;&nbsp; Al-Maqqari&nbsp; put his print in&nbsp; everywhere&nbsp; by&nbsp; giving a speech and&nbsp; lessons fill up with prophetic hadith , literature, history, biography, geography and translations . Al-Maqqari&nbsp; remained among the defenders of the Arabs and their culture and civilization, dedicated his life effort in defending the Arab legacy . He remained&nbsp;&nbsp; immigrant&nbsp; to trace knowledge&nbsp; until he passed away in 1041 Ah 1632 AD in Egypt, leaving behind many&nbsp; legacy&nbsp; in&nbsp; different fields .&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Mahdi Ali Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-11 2023-05-11 60 2 246 258 Role of Dating Violence victimization in depressive symptoms and PTSD among young females: A multivariate Approach <p>The present study aims to find the effect of dating violence victimization on depressive symptoms and PTSD symptoms among young females. A sample of females with age range 19 – 26 years from various universities of Punjab was selected using purposive sampling. Dating Violence Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory and Impact of Events Revised Scale were applied to this sample and only 194 females who scored at least 1 to dating violence questionnaire were included in sample. Using median split, two groups (high/low) were formed based on dating violence. Results showed positive correlation among dating violence, depression and PTSD symptoms. Further MANOVA results indicate that females higher on dating violence victimization have more depressive symptoms and PTSD symptoms as compared to low dating victimization. Limitations and further suggestions were discussed regarding present study.</p> Damanjit Sandhu, Mohd Ayub, & Kirandeep Kaur Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-20 2023-05-20 60 2 259 271 How to Get an Effective School: The Roles of Principal Leadership, Professional Teacher Behavior, and Student Learning Practices <p>The purpose of this study was to examine various factors of the principal's role in the development of teacher professional behavior in relation to student learning practices that predict on achieving an effective school. A stratified random sampling procedure was used to obtain 165 respondents from junior and senior high school teachers from a population of 9215 teachers. Using multiple regression and Exploratory Factorial Analysis to analyze the data with the help of SPSS. The results showed that the leadership role of the principal, the professional behavior of the teacher and student learning practices predicted effective school. There was a pattern showing that the role of the principal at the high school level was more effective than that of the junior high school. Further findings show that there are a number of significant latent structures for effective school in three dimensions and 12 sub-dimensions of the development of effective school modes. The school effectiveness model through this research provides useful information and is applied to policies to improve the quality of education.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Enjang Sudarman, Sri Wahyuningsih; Bambang Nurakhim; Sigit Priyono Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-20 2023-05-20 60 2 272 282 STATUS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ALIVE EDUCATION UNDER THE DEPED CURRICULUM IN SELECTED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF PIKIT <p>Educational system in the Philippines has undergone changes overtime, in the context of its educational planning, implementation and the <br>structure and content of its curriculum. Philippine is a multicultural archipelago which means that it is composed of diverse culture, to cater <br>inclusive education, educational stakeholders and institutions has all the motivation to provide quality and inclusive education through <br>different programs. The Department of Education initiatives to build communication as well as giving importance of cultural sensitivity, <br>Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education (ALIVE) program was established. ALIVE education was implemented and integrated to <br>DepEd curriculum which allows opportunities to both ALIVE Asatidz and Muslim students to both have the venue to western education <br>and cultural education. It is mechanism of providing education to the unreached children that is meaningful, relevant and culture sensitive <br>for Muslim societies (Nene Astudilla C. Godoy, et. al. 2008). Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education (ALIVE) program is one of <br>the avenues for peacebuilding between Muslims and Christians. National united people in the Philippines and intercultural solidarity are <br>the main objectives to keep country in peaceful life. The inclusion of ALIVE program in the public system has started in 2005 (Juliet <br>Sannad 2015).</p> Najieva S. Ibrahim, Guiaria S. Daud , Bai Dinah A. Sema , Meldred O. Baguio-Sorbito , Norhana P. Maguid , Jojo K. Guialel , Fauziyah S. Daud , Datuali S. Acob , Rahmia M. Meto , and Ruben I. Tilican Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-23 2023-05-23 60 2 283 291 Toilet Training: A Supplementary Recommendation <p>A brief note recommending a tactic to supplement practices taught in toilet training. It should prove effective <br>for children and developmentally disabled persons who have satisfactory manual dexterity, as well as people of all <br>ages. It presents a tactic for wiping following bowel movement that would be helpful for a variety of behavior <br>trainers, their clients, as well as the general public. It would also benefit the environment (reduced paper and water <br>waste).</p> Louis G. Lippman Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 60 2 292 293 Analysis of fertility trends in the state of Batna 1987-2008 using indirect estimates <p>Fertility is one of the thorny issues due to the large number of committees that have convened and dissolved and did not reach radical solutions, which worries officials due to their social, security, economic, and political repercussions on our society.</p> <p>This paper came to identify and evaluate the various previous demographic literature of studies and interventions, and the multiple attempts it contained to understand and study the contents of the fertility phenomenon, its nature and implications, and to monitor the problems associated with it, the importance of this study lies in monitoring population fertility in Algeria, specifically in the state of Batna, and its social and economic dimensions<em>,</em> ( <strong>There may be effects if the burden of population growth eases, but how that will happen remains unclear Economists and population analysts </strong><a href=""><strong>don't</strong></a> <a href=""><strong>fully</strong></a><strong> understand how the social, economic and cultural consequences will end).</strong></p> <p>To enable population policymakers and practitioners to have a more in-depth and detailed understanding of the dimensions and implications of this issue (<strong>as the population ages and the group of young workers decreases, some analysts are concerned about economic growth).</strong></p> <p>The element of fertility represents the main part of the population issue, so the focus is on this element and follow-up changes in it and monitoring and evaluating the features of the population situation in human societies, and the study concluded that the issue of population fertility, is ultimately only a behavioral issue characterized by its extreme variations and the overlap of factors affecting it, and the multiplicity of interpretations that it addresses,</p> <p>Therefore, the study and understanding of the conditions that dictated the formation of its features "population fertility", will contribute to enabling students to explain this phenomenon, identify the factors associated with it, and develop and crystallize appropriate population policies to deal with it.</p> Walid Khassam, Elamraoui Salah Eddine Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 60 2 294 314 Forms of Folklore south Algeria Hoggar Touareg as a sample <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This paper deals with the folklore South Algeria and its forms of expression used there, considered as cultural expressions and social practices common to a large group of individuals. The features of folklore are manifested through customs, traditions, values, arts, crafts, skills, and various popular knowledge produced by society, and formulated through its long experiences. This knowledge is used among them in a spontaneous manner, and they adhere to it in their behavior and dealings as Distinctive cultural patterns that link the present with the past, and link the individual to his community</p> Benramdane Fairouz Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 60 2 315 335 Manifestations of the implicit reader in the collection of the "Awakening of the clouds" by Abdullah Al-Ashi <p>This research paper aims to approach the aspects of the implicit reader's manifestations in the collection of the awakening of the clouds by Abdullah Al-Ashi, by touching on some of the textual signs that moved in the text to illuminate it and guide the reader in his reading and interpretive path, as well as opening the text to the spaciousness and multiplicity of reading and interpretation, as shown by those Signs are a phenomenon adopted by the text to reveal a certain intent and to attract the reader and involve him in the production and enrichment of meaning. In this study, I relied on the reading strategy from Weiser's perspective, which assumes the presence of the implicit reader as a pre-position in the text that would direct the real reader to explore the depths of the text and discover its secrets.</p> Aichaoui Nawal, Agha Aicha, Hakkoum Meriem Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 60 2 336 348 Barghawata, a new vision of its history <p>The aim of historical studies is not only a contribution to the discovery of humanity's past, but rather an aid in identifying how a person can integrate his multiple past into his permanent present and move towards the future. Therefore, studying the thought of the Barghawata state is an attempt to understand ourselves, and perhaps the best of what has been said about The topic is what the historian Mark Block answered his son to the question: Father, to what does history serve? To answer him, let’s understand.</p> <p>Therefore, in order to understand it, it is necessary for us to reconsider its thought within the series of events that led to its establishment, as we do not deny that the Barghawata state and its controversial thought have been dealt with by several historians and thinkers from the historical and epistemological side, and most of them agreed that it lasted for a long time and it was able to include a large alliance of several Amazigh tribes, and this rarely happens in the history of the Amazigh community. Therefore, the reason for its establishment and its separation from the centralization of the Umayyad state is mainly due to the Caliphate’s eagerness based on sanctifying the Arab element at the expense of the rest of the elements, and away from the interpretations of its deviation from the teachings of the Islamic religion, as it was considered a factor that confronts Arabization, not Islamization</p> Khedidja Chenaa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 60 2 349 359 Family values in ancient Egyptian thought <p>Values are related to the civilized structure of society by reflecting the prevailing culture, they are based on the criteria that make the act right or wrong, &nbsp;accordingly, this study highlights the features and characteristics of ancient Egyptian family values.</p> <p>One of the most important things we have reached is that the ancient Egyptian based on determining family values on the theory of reward and punishment in the court of Osruris, &nbsp;as well as a set of wise teachings and advice besides the authority of society, he saw the need to dye values with a religious character, otherwise, one would be misled by surrendering to desires. so he receives his worldly reward in his second life after death. This</p> <p>resulted in the orientation of the values of the ancient Egyptian family to virtuous moral standards, which had a great impact on the maturity of ancient Egyptian thought.</p> Soumia Chahbi, Belkacem Rahmani Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-30 2023-05-30 60 2 360 376 Drug abuse and addiction in Algerian society: causes and effects <p>The problem of drug abuse and addiction is one of the complex problems facing societies at present because of its bad and negative effects on individuals, families, and society, accordingly, the current research derives its importance from the youth stage importance due to its essential role in construction, development, and civilizational progress, otherwise, it may be a destructive force that threatens the stability, security, and development of society if it was related to drug abuse and addiction. This is what we touched on in our search by highlighting the most common reasons for Drugs abuse, their addiction, and their effects among Algerian youth</p> Mohamed Ferdjani, Djemoui Belarbi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-30 2023-05-30 60 2 377 392 The construction of the Muslim problem in France: Socio-historical study <p>In this article we want to know how the Muslim question which has become central in the representations of public opinion. We now postulate that television as a means of information has played an essential role in the construction of the Muslim problem in France through the media coverage of this question, thus arousing political and academic debates. Our approach captures the Muslim problem as the product of a social fabrication aimed at concealing the real problems of French society by shifting the debate from economic subjects to cultural and identity subjects.</p> Benali Rabah Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-31 2023-05-31 60 2 393 405 The impact of economic diplomacy on trade openness using gravity models: Case study of some African countries <p>This study aimed to determine the effects of the diplomatic representation of each of Algeria on the African continent, as well as the diplomatic representation of African countries in Algeria, on the volume of trade exchanges between the latter during the period (2007-2021), This is based on the Panel Data in the standard estimation and modeling process. The study found that the diplomatic representation of the African countries in Algeria had a positive impact on the volume of trade openness of the national economy and with a high elasticity exceeding the value of 0.25%, meaning that the diplomacy of the African economy contributed positively to influencing the trade exchange of its countries with Algeria, While the opposite result was reached with regard to the Algerian economic diplomacy, which had a negative impact on the rates of trade openness in Algeria, meaning that the Algerian diplomacy did not perform the role required of it with regard to enhancing cooperation and trade integration between Algeria and the countries of the African continent.</p> HOUADJI GHANIA, BENYABA MOHAMMED Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-31 2023-05-31 60 2 406 420