Psychology and Education Journal <h2><strong>PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION (ISSN: 1553-6939)<br /></strong></h2> <div class="row" style="border: 1px solid grey; padding: 5px; text-align: justify;">Dear Authors and Researchers,<br />We would like to inform you that the U.S. ISSN Center at the Library of Congress has confirmed that the correct ISSN number of the Journal <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> is ISSN 1553-6939. This ISSN is to be used instead of ISSN 0033-3077 which is the ISSN that belongs to the former title, “<strong>Psychology</strong>.” Each time a journal undergoes a major change of title a new ISSN is assigned. <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> also has been assigned a Linking ISSN (ISSN-L). The ISSN-L is available for use when there is a need to identify and link to a continuing resource without regard to format, for example in services such as OpenURL, library catalogues, search engines or knowledge bases. The next issue of <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> will be published with ISSN 1553-6969. But the previous ISSN will be also available in the ISSN Portal to retrieve the record for <strong>Psychology</strong> because it remains the identifier for the former title <strong>Psychology</strong> and the articles published under that title.</div> <div class="row"> <p style="text-align: justify;"> </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Arts and Languages, Humanities, Social Sciences, Management and Economics, Law and Political Sciences, Sports Sciences, Psychology, Education Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, History, Philosophy, Media and Communication, Science and Technology, Engineering.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Psychology and Education</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 1553-6939)</strong> is a quality journal devoted to basic research, theory, and techniques and arts of practice in the general field of psychology and education. <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> is published bimonthly. There are numerous papers on important aspects of psychology and education which can find no place in the professional literature. This journal is dedicated to filling this void.<br />Preparation of manuscripts: In formal aspects, the manuscripts should follow closely the general directions given in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition). EXCEPTIONS: All data in photographs, tables, drawings, figures and graphs must be simplified and stated in the RESULTS section of the paper. All papers must be formatted in MSWord, typed, Times New Roman font #12, double-spaced, with 1 inch margins, and submitted electronically or printed manuscript in original copy. Manuscripts must be accompanied by an abstract of about 70-100 words. The manuscript and abstract should conform to the American Psychological Association Manual Style, 6th Edition.<br />Given the present trends in the publishing industry and to reach the global audience without any restrictions, we have opted to move the journal from subscription-based to Gold open access.<br />A shift in this mode has certain benefits:</p> <ul> <li>Increased usage and citation</li> <li>Easy compliance with institutional and funder mandates</li> <li>Retention of copyright by authors</li> <li>Greater public engagement</li> <li>Faster impact</li> </ul> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Psychology and Education</strong>, the Editor, nor the Board of Editors (individually or collectively), assumes no responsibility for statements of fact or opinion in the papers printed. Authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permissions. Advertising rates supplied on request. Books for review should be sent to the Editor.<br />Articles in <strong>Psychology and Education</strong> are listed in PsycINFO, American Psychological Association (APA), Scopus,, and shared with other websites, and numerous gratis copies are mailed to the Library of Congress, EBSCO subscription services, and universities in developing countries overseas.</p> </div> en-US Thu, 06 Jun 2024 03:44:57 +0000 OJS 60 Students' attitudes towards digitization measures approved by the Ministry of Higher Education in Algeria -A field study of a sample of students of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at Saida University <p>This study aimed to find out the attitudes of students towards the digital transformation of higher education in Algeria, to determine the nature of students' attitudes, a questionnaire was built that measures their attitudes towards the following dimensions (digitization of teaching methods, digitization of the library, digitization of services, digitization of administration), and presenting it to a sample of university students at Saida University, where the sample included 90 students, and the study found that there are positive trends towards digitization in the teaching process and digitization of university libraries and towards digitization of services and digitization of university administration, And activating the continuous training of all actors in the higher education system (professors, students and administrators) to achieve effectiveness in digital transformation, while providing the necessary physical and technological infrastructure to achieve this goal.</p> KRIM Amina Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 09 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Organizational development - its areas and reasons for its application in an economic organization <p>Organizational development is an extension of the behavioural school of thought, which considers the success of organizations by managing the behaviors of the organization. This includes all behaviors, values, and attitudes that individuals and leaders bring to the organization, which subsequently become components of the organization's culture. One may observe that there are organisations that are less bureaucratic and open, which foster comfort and transparency among their employees. In contrast, there are more bureaucratic and stratified organisations where individuals are evaluated according to job grade, there is a lack of communication and dialogue among employees, and so on. When examining these behaviours, it can be concluded that the behaviour of leaders is the primary guide to the behaviour of individuals. Consequently, in order to change the culture of the organisation, it is necessary to change the behaviour of leaders.&nbsp; Organisations differ in their understanding and application of OD. Some organisations adopt a comprehensive approach to OD, encompassing all aspects of development. Others adopt a more limited approach, limiting OD to specific aspects. This is due to the level of maturity of the organisations in question.</p> BRAHMIA Sonia Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 09 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Arab rhetorical lesson from the renewed vision to the modern linguistic approach -Writings of Mohammed Al-Omari <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; Rhetoric is one of the sciences that has not yet matured or burned out. Until now, the rhetorical lesson is still characterized by movement and renewal. Its issues are not fixed and its methods are not stable.</p> <p>Rhetoric is viewed as one of the most important heritage subjects in terms of its richness and its scientific and cognitive values. Thanks to it, great steps have been made striving for building a vital rhetorical model where the traditional interacts with the modern, based on the innovative vision and the linguistic approaches.</p> Saida Sadoudi Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 09 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Relative intergenerational deprivation in Algeria <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This exploratory research deals with the phenomenon of relative deprivation, which belongs to social psychology mainly, where we tried to identify the features of the phenomenon in general, pointing to its historical origins, and most important its circulation, taking into account the objective conditions for its establishment, it has been proven that relative deprivation generates another phenomenon worthy of attention is «collective action» In our research, we have pointed out that collective action resulting from relative deprivation pushes individuals to adopt the approach of social movements in the West; however, we doubted that this would happen smoothly in the third flag countries like Algeria.</p> <p>The research also went in part to the literary divisions related to relative deprivation, in the end, we outlined several observations in the formulation of two hypotheses, we tried to analyze them as allowed by the denominator and we worked to frame them with theories we saw appropriate in our estimation.</p> Seddiki Abdennour Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 09 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Academic media training programs in the digital media environment “between change and adaptation” A field study in department of media and communication sciences at the university of msila, batna 1, setif 2 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;This research paper aims to assess the extent of changes in media training programs within academic institutions in the digital media environment and the degree to which these programs adapt to this environment. Continuous development and change in information technology and communication have led to the emergence of the digital environment, which is considered a new environment and a fundamental pillar in various fields. Media and its practice have become associated with it, giving rise to what is known as digital media, which effectively operates in the virtual digital environment. This necessitates the consideration of academic media training as the main logic for media work in its various types and fields, relying on descriptive methodology and using observation and interview tools. Our study sample consisted of professors from the Department of Media and Communication Sciences at the University of M’sila, Batna 1 University, and Setif 02 University, totaling 20 professors. It was found that the content of training programs is still not keeping pace with the digital media environment, although the use of digital tools has begun within the framework of implementing these programs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Merwa Khenti ,Saida himeur Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 08 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE LEVEL OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR AMONG ADOLESCENTS ATTENDING MIDDLE SCHOOL: FIELD STUDY AT SBIHI BELKACEM MIDDLE SCHOOL - SETIF PROVINCE – <p>The current study aimed to reveal the level of aggressive behavior among adolescents attending middle school stage, as well as the significance of differences in the level of aggressive behavior among sample members according to the variable of gender and academic level. The study sample consisted of 261 adolescents studying at Sbihi Belkacem Middle School - Setif Province -, Their ages range between 12 and 17 years, and they were randomly selected. The study relied on the descriptive approach. The aggressive behavior scale for adolescents by Amal Baza, standardized in the Algerian environment by Samia Ibriam, was also used. The study concluded that:</p> <ul> <li>The level of aggressive behavior among teenagers attending middle school is low.</li> <li>There are no statistically significant differences in the level of aggressive behavior among adolescents attending middle school according to the gender variable.</li> <li>There is a statistically significant difference in the level of aggressive behavior among adolescents attending middle school according to the academic level variable in favor of fourth year middle school students.</li> </ul> Zahra Layachi , Belkacemi Mohammed Lazhar Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 08 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE FAMILY'S RESPONSIBILITY TO PROVIDE CULTURAL SECURITY FOR CHILDREN <p>Through this article, we aim to emphasize the role and responsibility of the most important institution of social upbringing, represented by the family, in protecting children culturally, especially in light of the fierce attack of globalization on the cultures of societies, especially backward ones, as it threatens their existence, entity, and identity, through the various values that it works to disseminate in various ways. Multiple, such as education, sports, and various media, especially social media networks, which today occupy a large space in the lives of individuals and societies alike. Therefore, the family must bear seriously the necessity of facing the challenge associated with providing cultural security for its children in its various aspects. Religious, ideological, educational, and economic, as well as education on the proper use of the Internet in general, and social networking sites in particular.</p> Dr. Ait Mouhoub Mahammed, Dr. Lasfer Mohamed Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 08 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 COMMUNICATION IN SECURITY CRISES MANAGEMENT (SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES OF MINISTRY OF NATIONAL DEFENSE FACEBOOK AS A MODEL) <p>Countries and institutions are exposed to many crises, which require taking decisions and actions at the administrative and communication level. Given the development of the role of new media in all its forms in our daily lives, it has prompted various public and private organizations in Algeria to create accounts for them through social media networks. In our study, we address communication and the security crisis under the title: (Communication in Security Crisis Management (Social Networking Sites of the Ministry of National Defense (Facebook as a Model 2020)), by examining all the stages of preparing communication plans to achieve the goals that have been set, and analyzing the contents of the Facebook page posts to the Ministry of National Defense.</p> Mourad Belyacine, Malika Atoui Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 08 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 GRAFFITI AND POLITICAL CHANGE IN THE ARAB WORLD (ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE SEMANTICS OF GRAFFITI DISCOURSE IN ALGERIA) <p>Graffiti constitutes a network of linguistic and non-linguistic symbols and signs woven by the graffiti, which gives them meanings and connotations according to his cultural and social system. This practice (graffiti) has become closely linked to the political and change revolutions with all their ideological aspects and the Arab Spring in general, and the Algerian popular movement of 2019 proved this, as this practice overshadowed the walls of... Cities were made into a marginal public space to present ideas and trends with a revolutionary, change-oriented approach. This is because of their power to influence public opinion on the one hand, and on the other hand the ease of accessing this space with all freedom and anonymity to simulate political reality in all its details. From this standpoint, this research paper came to address the topic of the connotations of political graffiti discourse in Algeria through the approach of political anthropology as one of the approaches that was absent in dealing with the topic.</p> Dr. Hanane Hammadi, Dr. Ramzi Farah Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 08 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Otherness and exclusion in De purs hommes by Mohamed Mbougar Sarr <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the current global context and with the increasing number of debates around gender issues, literature offers a wide area of reflexion on the question of sexual identities. This paper proposes an analysis of the highlighting of “non-standard” sexualities and the process of exclusion due to sexual otherness in Mohamed Mbougar Sarr’s novel <em>De purs hommes</em>. It is a fiction that examines the existence of sexual minorities within a hostile and discriminatory heterosexist system, inviting to rethink the relationship between these communities and the rest of the society. Here, it is a question of demonstrating the treatment of the theme of homosexuality and the social exclusion that results from it.</p> Mecheri Meriem Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Global Quality Standards and Their Role in Enhancing Organizational Performance in the Context of Foreign Partnership" Case Study: National Drilling Enterprise "ENAFOR" located in Hassi Messaoud Algeria - 2024 <p>Global changes are accelerating, affecting businesses worldwide, with no <br>country immune to globalization. Algeria, in particular, is experiencing <br>significant economic and social changes, driven by globalization and various <br>supportive measures. The Algerian market is welcoming and opportunistic, <br>leading to the creation of new businesses and attracting international investors. <br>Emphasizing customer satisfaction, a new generation of managers is emerging, <br>focusing on quality management systems like ISO 9000, 9001, 14001, and <br>45001 to achieve efficiency and excellence. These standards help businesses <br>meet customer needs, avoid errors, and improve processes cost-effectively. In <br>Algeria, quality management is crucial for meeting the demands of an <br>increasingly discerning clientele, and many Algerian business leaders are <br>adopting these systems to enhance performance and customer satisfaction, <br>aiming to consistently provide superior quality products to Algerian consumers.</p> BIA AYMEN, BELARBI Ghania Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The phenomenon of school violence between theoretical perceptions and actual practices from the point of view of the counsellors of school and vocational guidance - field study on a sample of counsellors of school and vocational guidance in the state o <p>The study aimed to explore the phenomenon of school violence between <br>theoretical perceptions and actual practices from the perspective of school <br>guidance and counseling advisors using a descriptive exploratory approach. A <br>random sample of 31 school and career guidance counselors from the state of <br>Bordj Bou Arréridj was selected. To achieve the study's objectives, a <br>questionnaire was constructed, and its psychometric properties were confirmed. <br>The following statistical methods were used: frequency and percentages. In <br>conclusion, the study made several recommendations, including the necessity of <br>intensifying training sessions for school guidance and counseling advisors to <br>equip them with the necessary competencies and skills to deal with students. <br>Additionally, it emphasized the importance of opening communication channels <br>between the school and the family to address various student issues.</p> Hanane Feniche,Henen Abdelkebir, Fatima Hadjkhellouf Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Education in Promoting Citizenship Values through Algerian School Curricula <p>This research paper examines the role of education in the development of <br>citizenship values among young people, and the curricula that promote these <br>values. It also questions the implications of the adoption of citizenship values on <br>the practices of individuals in contemporary societies and the importance of the <br>Algerian school to pay the utmost attention to the subject of citizenship and its <br>social and political practice in order to face the challenges of the era. This is <br>because the status, dignity and source of pride of the citizen is linked to the unity <br>of the homeland and its security, social and political stability.</p> Idiou Leila Sucharitha Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Role Of Marketing Management In Investing In The Sports A Field Study At The Level Of The Clubs Of The Premier Professional Football League <p>The study aims to know the important roles of marketing management and investment in sports clubs, especially in football, as it is the marketing field that absorbs the most money and marketing, with the selection of Algerian professional clubs, especially with the beginning of the lack of public funding that was affecting all clubs, and ways to search for methods of corporate investment and private financing in There has been an absence of a marketing culture for clubs and advertising for sports companies, and in view of the current management of professional clubs in general being characterized by a superior ability to perform precise financial and administrative management, as well as in terms of following up on the management of sports management and the movements of administrators, it requires it to take a suitable place for integrated management, and for this reason it has become necessary for administrators. Cognitive familiarity with modern scientific foundations while selecting principles or effective elements to achieve their desired goals. This is the goal that Algerian clubs have been striving to achieve since the enactment of the laws of sports professionalism to its application on the field, whether in terms of human, administrative or financial management. In light of this, our study came to clarify the relationship between marketing management and investment in Algerian professional clubs in managing funds, including inputs and outputs, and how they behave in light of the lack of government funding, and what are the strategies for searching for investment funding sources for this in terms of advertising and marketing. In the field part of the study, a sample of 04 Algerian clubs in the First Premier Division and 04 clubs in the Second Premier Division. A questionnaire form was designed for administrators, as well as an interview with the heads of the clubs of the study sample. In light of the results obtained, the researchers recommended the following: 1- The actual implementation of the contents of the Professionalism Law by transforming sports clubs into commercial institutions in order to reduce the state’s expenditures on clubs and reliance on investment. 2- Relying on the management’s advertising and marketing strategy in order to bring money to the clubs</p> HAMANI IBRAHIM, MANSOURI NABIL , SACI ABDELAZIZ , ZAOUI ABDESLAM , MAZARI FATAH Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE MESSAGE IN TOUAT BETWEEN LITERATURE AND MEDICINE MANUSCRIPT OF SHEIKH SAYYID AL-BAKRI BIN ABD AL-RAHMAN AL-TINLANI TO MOULAY AHMED BIN MOULAY AL-MAHDI AL-TARDALTI -A MODEL- <p><em>Before delving into the scope of our topic, which is tagged with: The message in Touat between literature and medicine. The Manuscript of Sheikh Sayyid al-Bakri bin Abd al-Rahman al-Tinlani to Moulay Ahmed bin Moulay al-Mahdi al-Tardalti -As an example- we find that the first thing that comes to the reader is knowledge of the space and geography of the Algerian "Touat" region and its location in the farthest part of the desert. It occupies the same administrative division of the state of Adrar today. During the thirteenth century A.H., its people have known various types of writings, including sermons, wills, travel literature, biographies, biographies, leaves, letters, epic poetry, proverbs, and wisdom. In this article, we aim to highlight the types of writing known at that time in the Touat region, “letters literature." Because of the spread of written letters of various kinds among scientific, brotherly, and official. Although science is the finest and most useful language, the Brotherhood is more abundant. The official form is more precise and clear. </em></p> <p><em>This is what led us to open up to the scientific letter written by Sheikh Sayyid al-Bakri bin Abd al-Rahman al-Tinlani to Moulay Ahmed bin Moulay al-Mahdi al-Tardalti and the medical instructions contained within it, centred around the substance antimony (kohl), its properties, and how and for what reasons to use it? What are its most prominent benefits and harms? -Study and investigation- </em></p> Dr. Abdallah Razzougui Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Reality of Modernity and Its Impact on Contemporary Arab Thought <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Modernity is not just a call or a message that we preach. Rather, it is a set of successive and accumulated transformations that work to develop society through the development of its economy, ways of thinking, ways of living and ways of expression. Thus, it is not limited to the mastery of the technological application of science or the possession of material products for a society to become modern, because this feature may be found even in societies described as backward, and this type of modernity is superficial and does not rise to the level of true modernity, which includes the intellectual and cultural aspect and is not limited to the material aspect, as modernity has features of individuality, rationality and relativism and levels of political, economic, social, moral and intellectual levels.</p> Saad Boutra Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Story of the Palestinian Youth Revolution: The Lions' Den as a Model <p>The purpose of these research papers is to chronicle the history of a youth group that emerged in the city of Nablus, Palestine, in the year 2022, known as the Lions' Den, which was able to engage in armed jihadist revolutionary activity.</p> <p>Among the findings of our research, we note: first, the difference in vision within the group, and second, the difference in the mechanisms of confronting Zionist colonialism compared to what was prevalent in the Palestinian liberation movement at the time.</p> Azani Larem Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The role of the state in regulating the purifying works through the rural and urban surveys. <p>The operations that had previously ended, titled as The Agricultural Revolution in a municipal territory, are considered as starting point for composition of real estate card set, and this is stipulated in Article 24 of the Agricultural Revolution Law.</p> <p>Therfore, these cards constitute the beginning of preparing the general survey and establishing the real land register. Therefore, the preparatory work for land surveying is based on all previous documents, records and engineering plans that is mainly related to the real estate law that was in effect during the colonial period. We note that the Order 75/74 establishing the land survey came as a complement to the Agricultural Revolution Law, and it started from where it ended, and that is why we find that rural surveying has witnessed more success, unlike urban surveying. In light of these data, the following problem was raised: To what extent can the state organize purifying works through rural and urban surveying? To answer this problem, we decided to divide our research into two axes. The first axis dealt with the preparatory work for the survey process, and the second axis dealt with the survey division of municipalities</p> Souad Guira, Khatoui Abdelmadjid Sucharitha Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between government spending on health and economic growth in Algeria (2000-2019) <p>This paper examined the relationship between public spending on health (XPD) and economic growth (GDP) in Algeria for the period 2000-2019 using annual data based on the autoregressive model (VAR). This study concluded that there is no long-term relationship between the variables through the results of the Johansen co-integration test, and the causality test according to Granger showed that there is no two- way causal relationship between public spending on health (XPD) and economic growth (GDP), in contrast to public spending (DAB), which has a positive effect towards economic growth (GDP). Impulse-Responses analysis showed the reality of the complex relationship between public spending on health (XPD) and economic growth (GDP) through the alternating response between positive and negative economic growth (GDP), and in the end, some recommendations were presented.</p> Saci Bessadat, Choukria Didouh Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Video Game Addiction and its Relation to Aggressive Behavior in Schooled Adolescents: Field Study at Wagaaf Sabti Middle School- Oum El Bouaghi Municipality, Oum El Bouaghi Province <p>This research investigates the relationship between video game addiction and aggressive behaviors among adolescents attending Wagaaf Sabti Middle School in the Oum El Bouaghi Municipality, Oum El Bouaghi Province. The study aims to evaluate the intensity of video game addiction and aggressive tendencies, scrutinizing differences based on gender, and examining disparities between individuals with varying addiction intensities. Utilizing a descriptive methodology, the research employs a questionnaire to assess its psychometric properties, including validity and reliability. The participant cohort comprises 130 middle school students of diverse genders from Oum El Bouaghi. Data analysis, conducted using SPSS version 23, reveals:</p> Bouakaz Rafik, Hamani Hazem Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Translation in the artificial intelligence era from English into Arabi <p>This paper investigates the viability of intelligent translation in comparison to the expertise acquired by translators through their academic training. It delves into the significance of theoretical grounding in translator education, along with the requisite competencies and multifaceted roles assumed by translators. Using a qualitative method, the study collects samples of sentences and paragraphs extracted from The Guardian, a British newspaper, each presenting distinct translation challenges, subsequently subjected to translation by GBT Chat. In parallel, these samples are translated using various methods and techniques to address translation issues. The findings highlight the pivotal role of translators and their education in producing precise and culturally sensitive translations that resonate with both the source text and the target audience. Additionally, the study underscores that smart translation serves as an aid to translators rather than a substitute, complementing their work.</p> Assia Laribi Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Persuasion Strategies in Tourism Discourse "The model of a tourist guide <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It has become clear that the tourist discourse is not different from the literary discourse, as both are based on communicative language and characteristics that ensure the attraction and persuasion of the recipient. The creative work directed towards the recipient by the creator as sender and the promoter of tourism conveys a discourse, whether it is written, auditory or visual, to the target person or the specific segment (the addressee), and the goal is always the submission of the recipient.</p> Aissa Berber Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological Balance And Its Impact On Improving The Accuracy Of Some Basic Skills Of Players Football <p>The aim of this study is to propose a training program for the development of the equilibrium character of football players. This topic was chosen in order to highlight the importance of the proposed training programs based on the sound scientific foundations in upgrading the skill level of the players,</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The study also focused on highlighting the role of the trainer in selecting the best training programs used to reach the required levels and learning about the reality of the preparation and composition of the small football teams in the state of Bouira and the detection of their strengths and weaknesses. On the methodological side, the researcher used the experimental method to suit the nature of the research The research community in clubs active in the State League in Bouira is a cubes category. The sample was deliberately chosen and represented 36 players divided into two groups (experimental) 18 players from the amateur sports club of the municipality of Qadiriya The training program was proposed and the group (Al-Zabta) was 18 players from Al-Ahdariya Club who were trained according to the regular program. The tests were based on tribal and remote tests as a tool for study. This is to determine the effectiveness of the proposed training program in developing the basic skill under study. The statistical package program (spss18) was based on both the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, the Pearson simple torsion factor, Pearson correlation coefficient (T), the independent sample samples, and the T</p> YOUNSI MOHAMED, AREZKI ISMAIL , HAMANI IBRAHIM , ZAOUI ABDESLAM Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 New Theory in Polyphonic Analysis: How to Polyphonically Approach Discourse? <p>In the realm of scientific inquiry, a constant and pervasive theme is that of change, and the field of linguistics is emblematic of this perpetual transformation. Over the last two decades, the concept of polyphony has not only gained traction but has evolved into a pivotal element within both literary and linguistic studies.</p> <p>As delineated in the preceding chapter, it is the inherent adaptability of polyphony that has reinstated its prominence, signaling a renaissance fueled by its capacity to mirror certain facets of reality. However, delineating the essence of polyphony proves to be as elusive as attempting to contain water within the confines of cupped hands. A cursory examination of its application exposes a rich tapestry of interpretations, each varying with the perspectives of the scholars engaged.</p> Dr. HASSANI Rima Aida, Dr. GHAMRI Sara, Dr. LAOUAR Souhila Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 19 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Emotional Intelligence And Its Relationship To Reduce Stake Behavior Among Secondary School Students - A Field Of Study In The Province Of Laghouat - <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The current study aimed to determine the relationship between the emotional intelligence and stake reduction behavior among secondary school students in the province of Laghouat. The study sample included 253 male and female students from the academic year 2023/2024. The descriptive method was used to determine the type of the relationship between the variables, and the emotional intelligence and the stake behavior scales were applied. The study concluded the following results:</p> <ul> <li>There is a correlation between the emotional intelligence and the stake reduction behavior among secondary school students.</li> <li>There are statistically significant differences in the emotional intelligence among secondary school students attributed to the gender variable (male, female).</li> <li>There are statistically significant differences in the stake behavior among secondary school students attributed to the gender variable (male, female).</li> </ul> Dr. Zerout Ali, Dr. Taibi Baghdadi Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 19 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SOCIAL SECURITY IN THE ARAB WORLD A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF IMPORTANCE AND THREATS <p>Social security aims to provide a state of security, stability and reassurance in society, so that members of society can carry out their social activities and livelihood in a normal and normal way, because in the absence of security and stability, society is in a state of paralysis and stops the work that flourishes the concept of security and stability. It has become certain today that no society, whether advanced or not, such as third world countries, is free of a loud call to demand the provision of social security for citizens, as social security today has become the first line of defense to protect the homeland and citizens from all external dangers, internal dangers, and environmental dangers (nature) or social dangers (crime).</p> Zouad Rachid, Deldoul Djamel Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 19 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000