Volume 53 - Monograph. No. 2. Fall 2016
Collaborative Learning in Dyads: The Importance of Individual Processing Time by Isa S. Claassens & Marianne M. van den Hurk
In collaborative learning (CL), the dynamic interaction between shared knowledge construction and individual input can lead to a high level of knowledge creation. In this study we investigated the outcome effects when including individual processing time during collaborative learning in dyads. A total of 38 dyads worked collaboratively all the time or worked alternately collaboratively and individually on four different problem-solving tasks. Dyads in the combined condition scored significantly higher on the joint knowledge test than dyads in the collaborative condition. There were no differences at the individual level. This study suggests that when using collaborative learning, individual processing time should be included to make CL effective, especially at performance on group level.
Defining and Explaining Career Success in Psychologists Using Person and Job-Based Resources by Sonja Sobiraj, Sandra Schladitz, & Kathleen Otto
Using three studies, we examined subjective career success and potential correlates like job- and person-related resources in the psychology profession. Qualitative data from interviews with N=20 psychologists (Study 1) provided knowledge about relevant career success indicators. Besides well-established indicators including job satisfaction and job involvement, we also considered qualification and growth, social appreciation, personal efficacy, and self-acceptance. The role of person-based resources (flexibility, personal initiative) in an online survey with N=135 psychologists (Study 2) was investigated. In another online study with N=100 psychologists (Study 3), impact of job-based resources (autonomy, task feedback) was investigated. We found personal initiative and task feedback to be positively associated with psychologists’ subjective career success, whereas flexibility and autonomy were not.
Replications in Education and Psychology: Conspicuous Absence or Veiled Presence? by John W. Maag & Mickey Losinski
Replication is a cornerstone of the conduct of science in all fields. Without failed replications, meritless theories may be perpetuated while fruitful theories discounted. Yet there has been a long-standing belief amongst researchers that there is a conspicuous absence of replications in the social sciences—particularly education and psychology—and suggested that they are, in general, devalued. Conversely, for just as long, other researchers have indicated there are many replications in social science disciplines such as education and psychology, but they are not always labeled as such. The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which replications exist in the social science fields, particularly education and psychology, and the role they play in certain theories being continued and others discarded. First, different ways replications have been conceptualized will be described and guidelines presented. Second, the differential importance of replication is discussed relative to the types of research designs employed and independent variables investigated. Finally, several factors that have contributed to the belief that there is a dearth of replications in education and psychology is challenged, and it is revealed that replications do, in fact, exist in these disciplines.
Are Clinical and Counseling Psychology Students Interested in Tobacco Education and Cessation Training: An Exploratory Study by Bernadette Guzman Antoon, MPH, PhD (c) & Richard W. Wilson, DHSc
The U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines recommend clinicians, including psychologists, provide the “5 A’s” brief intervention counseling to identify smokers and decrease tobacco use. Previous studies report a majority psychologists do not ask the tobacco use status of their clients, feel untrained to provide the “5 A’s”, and receive little to no formal tobacco cessation training during their graduate coursework. In the present study, participants indicate a desire for tobacco cessation training, believe tobacco use as a priority, and believe psychologists should play a leadership role in managing tobacco use and dependence. Because of the high association between mental health and tobacco use, practicing psychologists can play a key role in identifying tobacco users and providing brief cessation support to a vulnerable population.