Perspectives of Jordanian Middle and Secondary Students Toward Social Studies by Dr. Khaled F. Alazzi

The aim of this study was to exam the perspectives of Jordanian Middle and Secondary Students toward Social Studies. Two groups of 8th- and 11th-grade students were surveyed and interviewed in Jordan regarding their perceptions of social studies curriculum? The research used both a questionnaire and interviews to collect data from a stratified random sample of 510 students selected from three school districts in Jordan. The research revealed both grades indicated that the social studies curriculum had sufficient information regarding Jordan and the world. While at the same time they did not believe the social studies textbook teaching critical thinking skills. The study also showed that the students indicated the teacher method used in the classroom depend on the lectures and memorization as major method for instruction. In the light of the study findings the researcher makes some suggestions and recommendations.


Cultural Impact on Ethical Values of International Students Studying in the United States Higher Education System: The Case of Saudi Arabian Students by Dr. Ashraf M. Farahat, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals; Dr. Julie S. Costopoulos, Florida Institute of Technology

 The purpose of this study was to identify the pressures influencing students from different cultures to academically cheat while in United States higher education. A survey was developed and administered regarding pressure from peers and family, experience with teaching styles, and concerns about future goals. Participants included Saudi Arabians studying in the U.S., Saudi Arabians studying in their home country, and U.S. citizens studying in the U.S. Influences from peers and family differed between the samples. It is recommended that academic institutions use the strong peer and family influences in these populations to promote academic integrity. 


Communication Theory in Leadership Research: Which Theories Predominate? by Dr. Christopher J. Fenner & Dr. Chris Piotrowski, University of West Florida

Scholarly attention on the prominent communication ‘styles’ of leaders has been the pervasive focus of leadership research for the past 50 years. Indeed, communication strategies or preferences differentiate leadership styles, paramount in everyday executive functioning and social interactions with subordinates, shareholders, the media, and overall public relations. Thus, there has been robust research attention devoted to both theoretical and applied aspects by which communication styles are considered ingrained and central features of leadership. Yet there is a dearth of research on which communication theories predominate in the modern study of leadership reflected in journal publications. To address this gap in the literature, the aim of the current paper is to determine investigatory emphasis on the predominant communication theories that garner the attention of researchers evident in modern leadership scholarship. To that end, a content analysis of articles published the journal The Leadership Quarterly, from 2010-2017, was conducted. The data-set comprised 445 primary articles.  The authors reviewed and designated each study by type of communication theory or model that served as the major framework conceptualized in the article. This analysis showed that the most emphasized theories are (in rank order): Leader-Member Exchange, Expression/management of emotions, Transformational leadership, Followership model, and Charismatic communication style. In addition, several theories ‘neglected’ by researchers in the area of leadership were noted. These findings are discussed in the light of contemporary applications of communication theory to the study of leadership in the modern business milieu. Implications for advances in communication scholarship were noted.


Relationship-Oriented Leadership Behavior and Its Impact on Communication and Participative Decision-Making by Dr. Meznah S. Alazmi, Kuwait University

  This study investigated three main aspects of relationship-oriented leadership: (1) adoption of relationship-oriented leadership behavior by department heads at Kuwait University; (2) effectiveness of communication; and (3) level of participation in the decision-making process by the teaching staff. This study examined the direct and indirect relationships between participative decision-making and communication effectiveness. Relationship-oriented leadership behavior had a significant influence on the level of participation in the decision-making process between faculty members and department heads. The mediation effect of communication effectiveness between participation in the decision-making process and relationship-oriented leadership behavior was found to be positive. 


Testing Effect in a College Class by Dr. Sau Hou Chang, Indian University Southeast

The present study aimed to investigate the testing effect in a regular college class. The research question was whether there were any differences in unit tests performance under different learning conditions. Thirty-three college students at a Midwest university participated in the present study. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used with the independent variable of learning conditions (study-study, test-test and control). The dependent variables were three unit tests. Results showed that the mean unit test score in the test-test condition (66.29%) was significantly higher than that in the study-study condition (59.47%). However, the mean unit test score in the control condition (61.52%) did not differ from those in the test-test condition and study-study condition.


A Hypothesis about the Effect of Visualizing on Subsequent Cognitive Thinking by Dan Gollub, High Plains Mental Health Center, Hays, KS

     The potential effect of spontaneous visualizing on subsequent cognitive thinking has not been thoroughly explored. It is hypothesized that the production of a sequence of spontaneous images, perhaps nonspecific in content and poorly seen by the conscious self, could enhance subsequent rational, goal-directed thinking. A review of the scientific literature suggests, in part, that such imagery could prime the observer in beneficial ways, could help him or her become more receptive to absorbing and self-altering experiences, could help reduce any barrier between conscious and inner thinking, and could help with functional brain connectivity.


Primary School Principals Leadership to Manage Reading Acquisition, and the Students Reading Skills by Sri Tiatri, Chysanti Arumsari, Meilani Kumala, & Tjibeng Jap, Universitas Tarumanagara, Jakarta, Indonesia

The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership of primary school principals in managing students’ reading acquisition. Observation and interviews were conducted with principals and classroom teachers in four schools. A reading test was used to measure reading skills of the students. The four schools were located in three cities in Indonesia, which were attended by students of various socioeconomic backgrounds (e.g., lower and middle class, public and private, Catholic and Muslim majority). The results showed that there were no significant differences on perception of reading importance. However, principals had different leadership management styles and had different knowledge of teaching reading. These factors influenced the entire process of reading and learning at school, as well as students’ reading skills. 


Effectiveness of Superbrain Yoga on the Academic Performance and Attendance of School Students by Dr. Srikanth N. Jois & Dr. Lancy D’Souza

This study aimed to find the effectiveness of Superbrain Yoga (SBY) on improving the academic performance and attendance of school students.  SBY is based on the principle of ear acupuncture and pranic energy movement in the body. The study participants were 1,945 school students studying from 1st to 10th standards in India. SBY was first introduced to the teachers, then explained to the students by the teachers. The academic scores and attendance of the students were compared before and after practicing SBY for a period of three months. The data collected were analyzed with repeated measure ANOVA and ‘t’test.  There was a 13.86 % increase (P<.001) in academic performance of students after the practice of SBY technique, and also an increase of 3.94% in the attendance (P<.001). SBY exercise will be useful for school children increasing their attendance and academic performance.


A Comparative Analysis of Student Motivation in Online Learning and Mobile Learning by Fahad Alkhezzi, Ph.D., Kuwait University

This comparative study explored the impact of elearning (online learning and mobile learning) on college students’ motivation. The main objective was to test whether using online learning and mobile learning can affect students’ motivation level and if a significant difference exists between the two eLearning modes. Consisting of a total of 30 items distributed on five sub-scales, a modified version of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory scale (IMI) was used to collect the data, and a counterbalanced research design was selected. The results revealed a reasonably high motivation score in both eLearning modes. They also indicated a significant difference in the overall motivation score between the two modes of eLearning in favor of mobile learning. Only two sub-scales (i.e., effort/importance and value/usefulness) out of the five differed significantly in favor of mobile learning.


Career Guidance in Rwanda and Kenya: Focusing on Career Decision-Making Process by Dr. Tomoharu Takahashi, Kyoto University

The East African community adopted the 2013 Harmonized Curriculum Framework, which emphasizes the necessity of effective career guidance at the secondary level. Despite its importance, the actual situation and students’ psychological development on career perception are still unclear. This study looked into 400 upper secondary students respectively from Rwanda and Kenya. Results show that Rwandan students rely largely upon career decision-making self-efficacy to take action on their preferred career paths. This implies the danger of setting unrealistic goals and ignoring their own levels of career decision-making abilities. Meanwhile, Kenyan students seem to behave according to their levels of performance. It echoes differences in the ways teachers give students career advice in Rwanda and Kenya.


Sentencing Outcomes of Drug Offenders in South Carolina: A Comparison of Race, Gender and Age by Dr. James Shumpert & Dr. Frederick M.G. Evans, South Carolina State University

This study examined disparities between sentencing length and variables of race, gender and age in South Carolina, in relationship to crack and cocaine crimes and determined which variables correlate with sentencing length. Research of the literature supports differences in sentencing of offenders who commit similar crimes with similar criminal history for drug related offenses. General systems theory and institutional theory were applied to a discussion of how the system might be biased. This quantitative correlational study was guided by correlations between each variable (race, gender and age) to the sentencing length for distribution, trafficking and possession of crack and cocaine crimes in South Carolina. The results supported the literature with 50% of Black offenders sentenced longer than other minorities and Whites; female offenders receiving milder sentences; and younger males sentenced longer. It was concluded that there was a positive correlation between sentencing lengths to race, gender and age. 


Perspectives of Jordanian Middle and Secondary Students Toward Social Studies by Dr. Khaled F. Alazzi, Yarmouk University, Jordan

The aim of this study was to exam the perspectives of Jordanian Middle and Secondary Students toward Social Studies. Two groups of 8th- and 11th-grade students were surveyed and interviewed in Jordan regarding their perceptions of social studies curriculum? The … Continue reading ?