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This qualitative research analyzes the argument patterns written by first-year undergraduate students by adapting the Toulmin argument structure model consisting of six elements: Claim, data, warrant, backing, qualifier, and rebuttal. Thirty-five students at a private university in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, wrote argumentative essays on the same topic, namely moving the capital city issue. Toulmin elements in student essays were analyzed to determine the pattern of arguments from each student. The research findings show that claim and ground are the components most often found in student argumentation essays. Meanwhile, the rebuttal component is the component that is rarely found. This study's results provide input to teachers and lecturers in teaching writing arguments to further explain, especially on the rebuttal elements. By understanding all the elements of argumentation, the quality of argumentation writing can improve. From these components, argument patterns were found in students' argumentation essays, namely: CD, CDW, CDB, CDWB, CDWQ, CDBQ, CDQ, CDWBQ, CDWBR, CDWQR, CDBR, CDBQR, and CDWBQR.
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