Whole Language Learning and Self-Efficacy Enhancement: A Mixed-Method Study toward Speaking and Listening Skills Development

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Ameneh Nejabat, et. al.


The goal of this study was advocating the implementation of holistic language learning procedures to not only improve learners’ communicative skills, but also impact learners’ self-efficacy. To fulfill this goal, a mixed method study was carried out.  The population of the study was composed of 78 male and female EFL learners belonging to the pre-intermediate level. The age of the learners varied from 16 to 22. As a result of the placement test, 18 subjects were eliminated from the study and the remaining 60 ones established the sample and then were randomly classified into two groups of experimental (EG) and control (CG) each 30 subjects. Four instruments were used to collect the data: Oxford Placement test, tests of speaking and listening that were taken as pre and posttest, a questionnaire to estimate self-efficacy and finally unstructured interview.   The achievements of the study were noticeable from several perspectives. Using holistic teaching procedures, the EG outperformed the CG that were taught using the traditional teaching procedures of oral skills. It was interesting to know that the impact of the procedures was more effective in speaking rather than listening. The next construct being improved was EFL learners’ self-efficacy. It was noticed that the principles of holistic procedures could positively impact the learners’ self-efficacy in a meaningful manner. Finally, in their interview, the learners claimed that they benefitted from the teaching procedures effectively and it impacted their language ability as well as their self-efficacy. They refer to a number of important positive points as well as some limitations.

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